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Scientific Name(s): Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers.
Common Name(s): Amrita, Duyutige, Gado, Galo, Giloe, Giloya, Guduchi, Gulancha, Heartleaf moonseed, Teppatige, Tinofend
Medically reviewed by Holevn.org. Last updated on Jul 4, 2019.
T. cordifolia is used in the Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for the treatment of jaundice, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis, and is also used as an immunostimulant. Experiments have examined its antineoplastic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, and immunologic properties; however, few clinical trials exist.
Clinical trials to support dosing are limited, with 300 mg of a standardized aqueous tinospora stem extract taken 3 times daily for up to 6 months.
Contraindications have not been determined. An in vitro study found an increase in prostate cancer cells; therefore, tinospora probably should not be consumed in this condition until further studies are conducted.
Information regarding safety and efficacy during pregnancy and lactation is lacking.
None well documented.
Limited clinical studies reveal few adverse reactions; GI symptoms (anorexia, nausea, vomiting) have been reported. No toxicity has been observed at Ayurvedic therapeutic doses. Hepatotoxicity has been reported with the medicinally interchangeable and related species, Tinospora crispa.
Information is generally lacking.
- Menispermaceae (moonseed)
T. cordifolia (also known known as Tinospora sinensis and Tinospora malabarica) is a glabrous, succulent, climbing shrub native to India and also found in Burma and Sri Lanka. It thrives easily in tropical regions, often growing to great heights, and climbing the trunks of large neem trees. The bark is gray or creamy white, deeply cleft spirally and longitudinally, with large rosette-like lenticels. The wood is white, soft, and porous, and when freshly cut, quickly assumes a yellow tint. The branches bear smooth, heart-shaped leaves, unisexual greenish flowers in summer, and red berries in winter. Long thread-like aerial roots arise from the branches. The viscous sap is light yellow, with an odor and a nauseating bitter taste.1, 2
Guduchi is an Indian medicinal plant that has been used in Ayurvedic preparations for the treatment of various ailments for centuries. Ancient Hindu physicians prescribed it for gonorrhea. Europeans in India became interested in the tonic and diuretic properties of T. cordifolia. The prepared tincture has received official recognition in the Indian Pharmacopoeia. It has been used to treat general weakness, fever, dyspepsia, dysentery, gonorrhea, secondary syphilis, urinary diseases, impotency, gout, viral hepatitis, skin diseases, and anemia. In compound formulations, guduchi is used clinically to treat jaundice, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes. The root is considered to be a strong emetic and is used for bowel obstruction.1, 3, 4 In India, T. crispa is considered medicinally interchangeable with T. cordifolia.75
A large number of compounds have been isolated from the aerial parts, roots, and whole plant of T. cordifolia, and reviews describing the constituents have been published.5, 6
Major constituents include the alkaloids berberine, tinospporin, palmitine, tembetarine, choline, isocolumbin, and tetrahydropalmatine; the steroids sitosterol, octacosanol, heptacosanol, nonacosan-15-one, hydroxyecdysone, makisterone, giloinsterol, diterpenoid lactones, furanolactones, tinosporon, and columbin; and the glycosides 18-nonderodane glycoside, furanoid diterpene glycosides, tinocordifoliside, tinocordiside, cordiside, cordifoliside, plamatosides, and syringin.5, 6, 7, 8, 9
Uses and Pharmacology
In a clinical trial (n=54), administration of fresh T. cordifolia stem extract to alcoholic individuals given at Ayurvedic doses for 14 days was observed to improve several known, as well as novel, biomarkers of liver and metabolic damage and oxidative stress. Improvements were found to be at levels near that of healthy volunteers.76
Tumor mass reduction and increased survival time have been observed with administration of the extract in several experiments in mice with implanted carcinomas.10, 11 In similar experiments, tinospora extracts restored thymus homeostasis, retarded tumor growth, and prolonged survival times.12, 13, 14, 15 Tinospora extract showed a regulatory effect on serum cytokine, with consequent angiogenesis inhibition of mouse melanoma cells.16
Survival time was increased after irradiation, and body weight loss was decreased in mice pretreated with a single dose of tinospora extract.17, 18 Pretreatment with stem and root extracts was also protective of the spleen and testis in rodents19, 20 while conversely, HeLa cells showed an increased radiosensitivity with a dichloromethane stem extract.21
A dose-dependent cytotoxic effect of tinospora extract in HeLa-cultured cells comparable with doxorubicin has been reported.22 At low doses, an ethanol extract of tinospora increased bone marrow cell counts, while higher doses resulted in decreased counts in mice with induced lymphoma.23 In vitro studies suggest T. cordifolia may contain compounds that act via the androgen receptor and cause an increase in proliferation of prostate cancer cells.24
Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of tinospora for use in the treatment of cancers. Because of proneoplastic potential demonstrated in some experiments,21, 23, 24 caution is warranted.
Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects
Aqueous and ethanol extracts of T. cordifolia leaf, root, and stem administered to alloxan-induced diabetic rats caused a dose-dependent reduction in blood glucose levels similar to glibenclamide and insulin.25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33 In similar experiments, serum and tissue cholesterol, phospholipid, and free fatty acid levels were reduced.5, 6, 26, 34
Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of tinospora for treating diabetes. However, a small study (n=54) in alcoholic individuals documented a significant improvement in lipid parameters compared to healthy controls. Mean values of triglycerides (P<0.01), total cholesterol (P<0.05), and low-density lipoprotein (P<0.01) were significantly reduced after 2-week administration of T. cordifolia stem extract administered at Ayruvedic doses. Additionally, mean high-density lipoprotein levels were increased in the alcoholic group compared to healthy controls, and the extract administration significantly reduced this increase from 81 mg/dL to 45 mg/dL (P<0.01).76
In vitro studies have demonstrated inhibition of lipid peroxidation, inhibition of nitric oxide synthase activity, and direct nitric oxide–free radical scavenging, as well as generation of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals.23, 35, 36, 37, 38
Markers of oxidative stress were reduced in rodents with induced diabetes, hepatotoxicity, and renal toxicity in several studies.15, 26, 30, 31, 39, 40, 41, 42
Clinical studies have been conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of T. cordifolia extracts on isoniazid- and rifampicin-induced oxidative stress in patients with tuberculosis. One large study used a combination of tinospora with curcumin; therefore, the positive results cannot be attributed to either plant individually.43 A second clinical trial evaluated tinospora alone and in combination with Phyllanthus emblica. In that trial, tinospora alone was no more effective than placebo.44 In alcoholic individuals, increases in liver enzymes that resulted from oxidative stress on the liver (ie, AST, ALT) were significantly improved with administration of T. cordifolia stem extract compared to healthy controls (P<0.01 each) in a small clinical trial (n=54).76
In a tail suspension and forced swim test, tinospora showed antidepressant activity, possibly via inhibition of monoamine oxidase activity.64
T. cordifolia is widely used in the Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine as an immunostimulant.45 Syringin, cordiol, cordioside, and cordifoliosides A and B are the active principles responsible for anticomplement and immunomodulatory activities46, 47 as well as an arabinogalactan polysaccharide isolated from the dried stems and an alpha-D-glucan.3, 45, 48, 49
Studies in rats have shown modulation of the immune response to stress via cytokines, and inhibition of stress-induced gastric ulceration and hypothermia has also been demonstrated in rats.50, 51, 52, 53 A protective effect of tinospora against cyclophosphamide-induced urotoxicity was attributed to modulation of cytokines and glutathione.42 Gunduchi fed to cows peripartum resulted in increased milk production, increased immune markers in the cow, and increased plasma growth hormone.54 Cows with mastitis showed an increase in the phagocytic immune response when fed tinospora.55
An aqueous extract of T. cordifolia reduced allergic rhinitis, sneezing, nasal obstruction, and pruritus in a randomized clinical trial over 8 weeks.56 A clinical trial evaluated the effect of tinospora on diabetic foot ulcers as adjuvant therapy. A decrease in the number of debridements was observed, related to increased phagocytic function. However, measures of net improvement did not favor tinospora use.57 A decrease in reported symptoms was found in a clinical trial of tinospora in HIV patients. No differences were found in CD4 counts, and unexplained hematological measures were noted.58, 59 A clinical study compared a polyherb formulation containing tinospora with hydroxychloroquine sulfate in rheumatoid arthritis. However, the effectiveness cannot be attributed to any one of the several plants in the preparation.60 Older studies suggested T. cordifolia strengthened host defenses and improved the surgical outcome in patients with extrahepatic obstructive jaundice.61, 62, 63
Limited studies in rats by 1 group of researchers suggest an antiporotic effect of stem extract and beta-ecdysone on bone density, considered to be acting via a mechanism independent of estrogen receptors.65, 66, 67
Other reported properties of the plant include a decreased infarction size in rats68 and hepatoprotection with a return to healthy levels of ALT, AST, serum alkaline phosphatase, and serum bilirubin in carbon tetrachloride–injured rats.69, 70, 71 Gunduchi fed to cows peripartum resulted in increased milk production but with no effect on composition.54
Few clinical trials are available to determine dosing. In examining the efficacy of tinospora in allergic rhinitis, 300 mg of an aqueous extract was given 3 times daily for 8 weeks.56 Similarly, a clinical study in HIV patients used 300 mg of a standardized aqueous tinospora stem extract 3 times daily for 6 months.58
Pregnancy / Lactation
Information regarding safety and efficacy during pregnancy and lactation is lacking.
In an experiment in mice, an extract of the aerial parts of T. cordifolia increased the activity of some cytochrome P450 enzymes.23
Few adverse reactions were reported in limited clinical trials.56, 58 T. crispa produced hepatotoxicity in a 49-year-old man within 4 weeks of taking 10 pellets/day. Symptoms and lab abnormalities normalized within 2 months of cessation of T. crispa. Liquid chromatography revealed a higher relative content of borapetoside F compared to a certified reference sample.75
Information is generally lacking about the toxicology of T. cordifolia in humans. At Ayurvedic therapeutic doses, no toxicity has been observed.5 No adverse events were observed in healthy volunteers given 500 mg/day for 21 days.72 No adverse reactions were noted when T. cordifolia stem extract was administered to rabbits up to the highest oral doses of 1.6 g/kg71, 73 and in rats at doses of 1,000 mg/kg of the whole plant extract.68 However, 40% mortality resulted after mice were given 500 mg/kg body weight of an extract of tinospora stems.17 Genotoxicity tests in rats given up to 250 mg/kg body weight for 7 days showed no clastogenicity or DNA damage, and T. cordifolia was not mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strains.74 However, hydroalcoholic extracts did promote micronuclei formation in bone marrow cells.5
- Tinospora crispa
- Tinospora malabarica
- Tinospora sinensis
1. Chopra RN. Chopra’s Indigenous Drugs of India. 2nd ed. Calcutta, India: Academic Publishers; 1982:426-428.2. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network – (GRIN) [online database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?431130. Accessed February 9, 2012.3. Chintalwar G, Jain A, Sipahimalani A, et al. An immunologically active arabinogalactan from Tinospora cordifolia. Phytochemistry. 1999;52(6):1089-1093.106436714. Gupta SS, Verma SC, Garg VP, Rai M. Anti-diabetic effects of Tinospora cordifolia. Effect on fasting blood sugar level, glucose tolerance and adrenaline induced hyperglycaemia. Indian J Med Res. 1967;55(7):733-745.60562855. Panchabhai TS, Kulkarni UP, Rege NN. Validation of therapeutic claims of Tinospora cordifolia: a review. Phytother Res. 2008;22(4):425-441.181670436. Upadhyay AK, Kumar K, Kumar A, Mishra HS. Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook.f. and Thoms. (Guduchi) – validation of the Ayurvedic pharmacology through experimental and clinical studies. Int J Ayurveda Res. 2010;1(2):112-121.208145267. Maurya R, Manhas LR, Gupta P, Mishra PK, Singh G, Yadav PP. Amritosides A, B, C and D: clerodane furano diterpene glucosides from Tinospora cordifolia. Phytochemistry. 2004;65(14):2051-2055.152799718. Roja G, Bhangale AS, Juvekar AR, Eapen S, D’Souza SF. Enhanced production of the polysaccharide arabinogalactan using immobilized cultures of Tinospora cordifolia by elicitation and in situ adsorption. Biotechnol Prog. 2005;21(6):1688-1691.163210529. Sarma D, et al. Constituents of Tinospora cordifolia root. Fitoterapia. 1998;69:541-542.10. Leyon PV, Kuttan G. Inhibitory effect of a polysaccharide from Tinospora cordifolia on experimental metastasis.J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;90(2-3):233-237.1501318611. Jagetia GC, Rao SK. Evaluation of the antineoplastic activity of guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006;29(3):460-466.1650814612. Singh N, Singh SM, Shrivastava P. Restoration of thymic homeostasis in a tumor-bearing host by in vivo administration of medicinal herb Tinospora cordifolia. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2005;27(4):585-599.1643557813. Singh N, Singh SM, Shrivastava P. Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on the antitumor activity of tumor-associated macrophages-derived dendritic cells. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2005;27(1):1-14.1580385614. Singh N, Singh SM, Shrivastava P. Immunomodulatory and antitumor actions of medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia are mediated through activation of tumor-associated macrophages. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2004;26(1):145-162.1510673915. Dhanasekaran M, Baskar AA, Ignacimuthu S, Agastian P, Duraipandiyan V. Chemopreventive potential of Epoxy clerodane diterpene from Tinospora cordifolia against diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Invest New Drugs. 2009;27(4):347-55.1885310316. Leyon PV, Kuttan G. Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on the cytokine profile of angiogenesis-induced animals. Int Immunopharmacol. 2004;4(13):1569-1575.1545411017. Goel HC, Prasad J, Singh S, et al. Radioprotective potential of an herbal extract of Tinospora cordifolia. J Radiat Res (Tokyo). 2004;451(1):61-68.1513329118. Pahadiya S, Sharma J. Alteration of lethal effects of gamma rays in Swiss albino mice by Tinospora cordifolia. Phytother Res. 2003;17(5):552-554.1274899719. Singh L, Tyagi S, Rizvi MA, Goel HC. Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on gamma ray-induced perturbations in macrophages and splenocytes. J Radiat Res (Tokyo). 2007;48(4):305-315.1754893920. Sharma P, Parmar J, Sharma P, Verma P, Goyal PK. Radiation-induced testicular injury and its amelioration by Tinospora cordifolia (an Indian medicinal plant) extract. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:643847.2135061021. Rao SK, Rao PS. Alteration in the radiosensitivity of HeLa cells by dichloromethane extract of guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia). Integr Cancer Ther. 2010;9(4):378-384.2110661722. Jagetia GC, Rao SK. Evaluation of cytotoxic effects of dichloromethane extract of guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers ex Hook F & THOMS) on cultured hela cells. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006;3(2):267-272.1678605823. Singh RP, Banerjee S, Kumar PV, Raveesha KA, Rao AR. Tinospora cordifolia induces enzymes of carcinogen/drug metabolism and antioxidant system, and inhibits lipid peroxidation in mice. Phytomedicine. 2006;13(1-2):74-84.1636093624. Kapur P, Pereira BM, Wuttke W, Jarry H. Androgenic action of Tinospora cordifolia ethanolic extract in prostate cancer call line LNCaP. Phytomedicine. 2009;16(6-7):679-682.1909777125. Stanely P, Prince M, Menon VP. Hypoglycaemic and other related actions of Tinospora cordifolia roots in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;70(1):9-15.1072078426. Stanely Mainzen Prince P, Menon VP. Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic action of alcohol extract of Tinospora cordifolia roots in chemical induced diabetes in rats. Phytother Res. 2003;17(4):410-413.1272215227. Prince PS, Padmanabhan M, Menon VP. Restoration of antioxidant defence by ethanolic Tinospora cordifolia root extract in alloxan-induced diabetic liver and kidney. Phytother Res. 2004;18(9):785-787.1547818928. Wadood N, Wadood A, Shah SA. Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on blood glucose and total lipid levels of normal and alloxan-diabetic rabbits. Planta Med. 1992;58(2):131-136.152902429. Sengupta S, Mukherjee A, Goswami R, Basu S. Hypoglycemic activity of the antioxidant saponarin, characterized as alpha-glucosidase inhibitor present in Tinospora cordifolia. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2009;24(3):684-690.1895128330. Sangeetha MK, Balaji Raghavendran HR, Gayathri V, Vasanthi HR. Tinospora cordifolia attenuates oxidative stress and distorted carbohydrate metabolism in experimentally induced type 2 diabetes in rats. J Nat Med. 2011;65(3-4):544-550.2153823331. Reddy SS, Ramatholisamma P, Ramesh B, Baskar R, Saralakumari D. Beneficiary effect of Tinospora cordifolia against high-fructose diet induced abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in Wistar rats. Horm Metab Res. 2009;41(10):741-746.1976410732. Reddy SS, Ramatholisamma P, Karuna R, Saralakumari D. Preventive effect of Tinospora cordifolia against high-fructose diet-induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress in male Wistar rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47(9):2224-2229.1952013733. Patel MB, Mishra S. Hypoglycemic activity of alkaloidal fraction of Tinospora cordifolia. Phytomedicine. 2011;18(12):1045-1052.2166545134. Mainzen Prince P, Menon VP, Gunasekaran G. Hypolipidaemic action of Tinospora cordifolia roots in alloxan diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;64:53-57.35. Mathew S, Kuttan G. Antioxidant activity of Tinospora cordifolia and its usefulness in the amelioration of cyclophosphamide induced toxicity. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 1997;16(4):407-411.950521436. Rawal A, Muddeshwar M, Biswas S. Effect of Rubia cordifolia, Fagonia cretica linn, and Tinospora cordifolia on free radical generation and lipid peroxidation during oxygen-glucose deprivation in rat hippocampal slices. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;324(2):588-596.1547446837. Rawal AK, Muddeshwar MG, Biswas SK. Rubia cordifolia, Fagonia cretica linn and Tinospora cordifolia exert neuroprotection by modulating the antioxidant system in rat hippocampal slices subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2004;4:11.1531039238. Gacche RN, Dhole NA. Profile of aldose reductase inhibition, anti-cataract and free radical scavenging activity of selected medicinal plants: an attempt to standardize the botanicals for amelioration of diabetes complications. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49(8):1806-1813.2157044439. Sivakumar V, Rajan MS. Antioxidant effect of Tinospora cordifolia extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2010;72(6):795-798.2196975740. Sharma V, Pandey D. Protective role of Tinospora cordifolia against lead-induced hepatotoxicity. Toxicol Int. 2010;17(1):12-17.2104246741. Gupta R, Sharma V. Ameliorative effects of Tinospora cordifolia root extract on histopathological and biochemical changes induced by aflatoxin-b(1) in mice kidney. Toxicol Int. 2011;18(2):94-98.2197681242. Hamsa TP, Kuttan G. Tinospora cordifolia ameliorates urotoxic effect of cyclophosphamide by modulating GSH and cytokine levels. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2010 Oct 5. [Epub ahead of print]2093272943. Adhvaryu MR, Reddy N, Vakharia BC. Prevention of hepatotoxicity due to anti tuberculosis treatment: a novel integrative approach. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14(30):4753-4762.1872053544. Panchabhai TS, Ambarkhane SV, Joshi AS, Samant BD, Rege NN. Protective effect of Tinospora cordifolia, Phyllanthus emblica and their combination against antitubercular drugs induced hepatic damage: an experimental study. Phytother Res. 2008;22(5):646-650.1838948645. Nair PK, Rodriguez S, Ramachandran R, et al. Immune stimulating properties of a novel polysaccharide from the medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia. Int Immunopharmacol. 2004;4(13):1645-1659.1545411746. Kapil A, Sharma S. Immunopotentiating compounds from Tinospora cordifolia. J Ethnopharmacol. 1997;58(2):89-95.940689647. Atal CK, Sharma ML, Kaul A, Khajuria A. Immunomodulating agents of plant origin. I: Preliminary screening. J Ethnopharmacol. 1986;18(2):133-141.356099148. Nair PK, Melnick SJ, Ramachandran R, Escalon E, Ramachandran C. Mechanism of macrophage activation by (1,4)-alpha-D-glucan isolated from Tinospora cordifolia. Int Immunopharmacol. 2006;6(12):1815-1824.1705267249. Raghu R, Sharma D, Ramakrishnan R, Khanam S, Chintalwar GJ, Sainis KB. Molecular events in the activation of B cells and macrophages by a non-microbial TLR4 agonist, G1-4A from Tinospora cordifolia. Immunol Lett. 2009;123(1):60-71.1942855350. Savrikar SS, Dole V, Ravishankar B, Shukla VJ. A comparative pharmacological investigation of three samples of ‘Guduchi ghrita’ for adaptogenic activity against forced swimming induced gastric ulceration and hematological changes in albino rats. Int J Ayurveda Res. 2010;1(2):67-72.2081451851. Velazquez EA, Kimura D, Torbati D, Ramachandran C, Totapally BR. Immunological response to (1,4)-alpha-D-glucan in the lung and spleen of endotoxin-stimulated juvenile rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009;105(5):301-306.1962728052. Koppada R, Norozian FM, Torbati D, Kalomiris S, Ramachandran C, Totapally BR. Physiological effects of a novel immune stimulator drug, (1,4)-alpha-d-glucan, in rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009;105(4):217-221.1938904953. Desai VR, Ramkrishnan R, Chintalwar GJ, Sainis KB. G1-4A, an immunomodulatory polysaccharide from Tinospora cordifolia, modulates macrophage responses and protects mice against lipopolysaccharide induced endotoxic shock. Int Immunopharmacol. 2007;7(10):1375-1386.1767315354. Mallick S, Prakash BS. Influence of feeding Tinospora cordifolia peripartum on lactation parameters in crossbred cows. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2011 Sep 7. [Epub ahead of print]2189578410.1111/j.1439-0396.2011.01228.x55. Mukherjee R, De UK, Ram GC. Evaluation of mammary gland immunity and therapeutic potential of Tinospora cordifolia against bovine subclinical mastitis. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2010;42(4):645-651.1987675556. Badar VA, Thawani VR, Wakode PT, et al. Efficacy of Tinospora cordifolia in allergic rhinitis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;96(3):445-449.1561956357. Purandare H, Supe A. Immunomodulatory role of Tinospora cordifolia as an adjuvant in surgical treatment of diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective randomized controlled study. Indian J Med Sci. 2007;61(6):347-355.1755809858. Kalikar MV, Thawani VR, Varadpande UK, Sontakke SD, Singh RP, Khiyani RK. Immunomodulatory effect of Tinospora cordifolia extract in human immuno-deficiency virus positive patients. Indian J Pharmacol. 2008;40(3):107-110.2004093659. Akhtar S. Use of Tinospora cordifolia in HIV infection. Indian J Pharmacol. 2010;42(1):57.2060684260. Chopra A, Saluja M, Tillu G, et al. Comparable efficacy of standardized Ayurveda formulation and hydroxychloroquine sulfate (HCQS) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA): a randomized investigator-blind controlled study. Clin Rheumatol. 2012;31(2):259-269.2177371461. Thatte U, Rao SG, Dahanukar SA. Tinospora cordifolia induces colony stimulating activity in serum. J Postgrad Med. 1994;40(4):202-203.913623962. Thatte U, Kulkarni MR, Dahanukar SA. Immunotherapeutic modification of Escherichia coli peritonitis and bacteremia by Tinospora cordifolia. J Postgrad Med. 1992;38(1):13-15.151271763. Rege N, Bapat RD, Koti R, Desai NK, Dahanukar S. Immunotherapy with Tinospora cordifolia: a new lead in the management of obstructive jaundice. Indian J Gastroenterol. 1993;12(1):5-8.833092464. Dhingra D, Goyal PK. Evidences for the Involvement of monoaminergic and GABAergic systems in antidepressant-like activity of Tinospora cordifolia in mice. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2008;70(6):761-767.2136943765. Kapur P, Jarry H, Wuttke W, Pereira BM, Seidlova-Wuttke D. Evaluation of the antiosteoporotic potential of Tinospora cordifolia in female rats. Maturitas. 2008;59(4):329-338.1848280966. Kapur P, Wuttke W, Jarry H, Seidlova-Wuttke D. Beneficial effects of beta-Ecdysone on the joint, epiphyseal cartilage tissue and trabecular bone in ovariectomized rats. Phytomedicine. 2010;17(5):350-355.2017107267. Seidlova-Wuttke D, Christel D, Kapur P, Nguyen BT, Jarry H, Wuttke W. Beta-ecdysone has bone protective but no estrogenic effects in ovariectomized rats. Phytomedicine. 2010;17(11):884-889.2055418668. Rao PR, Kumar VK, Viswanath RK, Subbaraju GV. Cardioprotective activity of alcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia in ischemia-reperfusion induced myocardial infarction in rats. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005;28(12):2319-2322.1632717369. Nagarkatti D, Rege NN, Desai NK, Dahanukar SA. Modulation of Kupffer cell activity by Tinospora cordifolia in liver damage. J Postgrad Med. 1994;40(2):65-67.873755470. Bishayi B, Roychowdhury S, Ghosh S, Sengupta M. Hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory properties of Tinospora cordifolia in CCl4 intoxicated mature albino rats. J Toxicol Sci. 2002;27(3):139-146.1223813871. Jagetia G, Nayak V, Vidyasagar MS. Evaluation of the antineoplastic activity of guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) in cultured HeLa cells. Cancer Lett. 1998;127(1-2):71-82.961986072. Karkal YR, Bairy LK. Safety of aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) in healthy volunteers: a double blind randomised placebo controlled study. Iran J Pharmacol Ther. 2007;6(1)59-61.73. Ikram M, Khattak SG, Gilani SN. Antipyretic studies on some indigenous Pakistani medicinal plants: II. J Ethnopharmacol. 1987;19(2):185-192.349730774. Chandrasekaran CV, Mathuram LN, Daivasigamani P, Bhatnagar U. Tinospora cordifolia, a safety evaluation. Toxicol In Vitro. 2009;23(7):1220-1226.1965120475. Langrand J, Regnault H, Cachet X, et al. Toxic hepatitis induced by a herbal medicine: Tinospora crispa. Phytomedicine. 2014;21(8-9):1120-1123.2486750476. Mittal A, Dabur R. Detection of new human metabolic urinary markers in chronic alcoholism and their reversal by aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia stem. Alcohol Alcohol. 2015;50(3):271-281.25754126
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