Thuốc Terminalia

Thuốc Terminalia
Thuốc Terminalia

Holevn Health share articles about :Thuốc Terminalia  , side effects – dosage , Thuốc Terminalia what disease treatment.Other noted issues. Please refer to the details below.

Scientific Name(s): Terminalia arjuna Wight and Arn., Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb., Terminalia chebula Retz.
Common Name(s): Argun kahua, Arjuna, Axjun, Bahera (Bahira), Bala harade (T. chebula), Balera (T. bellirica), Behada, Hara, Harada, Haritaki (T. chebula), Hirala, Kumbuk (T. arjuna), Myrobalan

Medically reviewed by Last updated on Jul 3, 2019.

Clinical Overview


Terminalia has been evaluated to a limited extent for its cardiovascular properties and for its role in cancer therapy. Hepatoprotective, cardiovascular, antidiabetes, cholesterol-reducing, antimicrobial, and antioxidant effects have been described.


Clinical studies have been conducted in cardiovascular disorders using T. arjuna bark extract at doses of 500 mg every 8 hours for up to 3 months. Dosages for other Terminalia species have not been clinically defined.


Contraindications have not been determined.


Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking. Avoid use.


None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

Extracts of T. arjuna are well tolerated. Adverse reactions similar to those seen with placebo (constipation, headache, abdominal discomfort, body ache) have been described. T. arjuna has also been found to exert antiplatelet and anticoagulant activity. In rats, T. arjuna extract was found to decrease thyroid hormone levels.


Information is limited.

Scientific Family

  • Combretaceae


Terminalia species are evergreen trees. T. arjuna reaches approximately 30 m in height, has light-yellow flowers, and cone-shaped leaves. T. bellirica has clustered oval leaves and greenish, foul-smelling flowers with brown, hairy fruit about the size of a walnut. T. chebula grows approximately 21 m in height with white flowers and small, ribbed fruits. T. arjuna is used primarily for its bark; in other Terminalia species, the fruit is used.1, 2, 3, 4, 5


Arjuna bark has been used in the traditonal Ayurvedic medical system for at least 3,000 years as a remedy for heart ailments, and T. chebula has been used as a digestive aid. This species, referred to as “king of medicine” by Tibetans, is often depicted in the extended palm of Buddha. A traditional Ayurvedic herbal combination dating back 5,000 years is a mixture of 3 herbs, 2 of which are Terminalia species: T. bellirica (for health-harmonizing qualities), T. chebula (to normalize body balance), and Emblica officinalis (for vitamin C content; see separate Emblica monograph).3, 4 The fruit of T. arjuna has been used as a tonic, with the leaf paste applied externally on sores and ulcers. Additionally, the stem bark has been used for its antidysenteric, antipyretic, astringent, cardiotonic, and lithotriptic effects. The bark powder has diuretic effects and is used to treat hepatic cirrhosis and hypertension. The extract of the bark has been used to treat sores, ulcers, and scorpion stings, and to lower blood glucose.6


Tannins, flavonoids, and sterols have been identified in Terminalia species. Other constituents include amino acids, fructose, resin, and fixed oils.

In varying compositions, anthraquinones, gallic acid, chebulinic and chebulagic acid, ellagic and ethaedioic acids, and terpinenes and terpinenols have been described from T. chebula.4, 5, 7, 8

T. arjuna roots contain the oleanane triterpenoids arjunic acid, arjungenin, glycosides, and cardenolide.9, 10 Anthraquinones and gallic acid have been isolated from T. bellirica.4, 11

Uses and Pharmacology


In vitro/Animal data

Activity has been demonstrated against various gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus,12, 13, 14, 15, 16 Salmonella typhi,15, 17 Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli,8 certain dermatophytes,18 Bacillus subtilis,15 Staphylococcus epidermidis,15 Pseudomonas aeruginosa,15 and Candida species.18, 19, 20 Aqueous, methanol, butanol, and other fractions have all been evaluated and have somewhat different properties.

T. bellirica has demonstrated antimicrobial activity in vitro, including activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus.13, 21, 22

The organic extracts of T. arjuna leaves inhibited the growth of human isolates of S. aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter, and P. aeruginosa. Bark extracts of T. arjuna showed inhibitory activity against these bacteria, except for P. aeruginosa.16

Experimentation in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells with 24 medicinal plants indigenous to Pakistan was conducted to evaluate their effect on secretion of interleukin (IL)-8 and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in order to assess anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects. Although no significant direct cytotoxic effects on the gastric cells or bactericidal effects on H. pylori were found, T. chebula fruit extract was observed to have strong inhibitory activity on IL-8 at 50 and 100 mcg/mL in H. pylori-infected gastric cells.76

Certain Terminalia species demonstrate in vitro antiviral activity.23, 24, 25, 26, 27

Clinical data

No clinical data exist regarding the use of Terminalia for its antimicrobial effects.


In vitro/Animal data

T. chebula (dried fruit)28 and T. arjuna (bark)29, 30 have been investigated for activity against human cancer cell lines. Growth inhibition and cytotoxic effects are apparent, with both concentration-dependent apoptosis and cell necrosis as the proposed cytotoxic mechanisms. In Swiss mice with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC), a methanolic extract of T. arjuna leaf decreased tumor volume, weight, and viable cell count as well as extending survival.6 Additionally, aqueous extracts of T. arjuna demonstrated antioxidant activity in aldo-keto reductase (AKR) mice with Dalton’s lymphoma. Specifically, oral administration of T. arjuna increased the activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione transferase.31

Arjunic acid isolated from the bark of T. arjuna was cytotoxic against human oral (KB), ovarian (PA 1), and liver (HepG2 and WRL-68) cancer cell lines.32

An aqueous extract of T. arjuna bark reduced buccal pouch carcinomas in hamsters, decreased lipid peroxidation, and increased antioxidant levels.33

T. bellerica inhibited the growth of HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma and A549 lung carcinoma cells. Additionally, T. bellerica combined with cisplatin in low to medium doses in A549 cells showed synergistic and additive effects. A low-dose combination of T. bellerica and doxorubicin showed synergistic effects in HepG2 cells. All other combinations demonstrated antagonistic effects.34

Administration of triphala, an Ayurvedic herbal combination consisting of T. chebula, Phyllanthus emblica, and T. bellerica, 1 g/kg given orally to mice for 7 days prior to whole body gamma-irradiation reduced mortality by 60%.35

Taxol at a level of 211.1 mcg/L was produced by endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis terminaliae isolated from healthy, mature T. arjuna leaves.36

Clinical data

No clinical data exist regarding the use of Terminalia for cancer.


Animal data

Experiments in rats with T. arjuna and extracted arjunolic acid have demonstrated an antiplatelet and anticoagulant action similar to that of acetylsalicylic acid.37, 38

In dogs, T. arjuna bark extract caused dose-dependent hypotension, suggesting adrenergic beta-2 receptor agonist activity.39

Therapeutic and prophylactic doses of T. arjuna bark significantly improved left ventricular function as measured by myocardial contractility index and left ventricular pressures in rats with isoproterenol-induced heart failure. Additionally, T. arjuna restored alterations in serum CK-MB levels and improved lipid levels.40

Clinical data

Clinical studies have been conducted in coronary heart disease using T. arjuna bark extract at doses of 500 mg every 8 hours.

Statistically significant reduction in angina and improved diastolic function were shown in patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation at 1 and 3 months with T. arjuna.41 Effects similar to those of isosorbide mononitrate 40 mg daily treatment were demonstrated in patients with chronic stable angina given T. arjuna bark extract. Reduction in the frequency of angina and improved treadmill exercise test parameters were found.42

Brachial artery endothelial dysfunction was improved after 2 weeks of T. arjuna bark extract versus placebo in young male smokers.43

In a small study of 12 patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV refractory heart failure, patients were randomized to receive T. arjuna bark 500 mg 3 times daily or placebo for 2 weeks followed by a crossover with a wash-out period for 2 weeks. Following this phase (phase 1), patients who showed improvement with T. arjuna were continued in an open-label phase study (phase 2) where they continued to take T. arjuna for 20 to 28 months (average, 24 months). In phase 1, patients treated with T. arjuna demonstrated improvement in walking and effort tolerance, weight loss, and reduction in heart size. Following phase 2, patients receiving T. arjuna showed continual benefit related to ejection fraction and quality of life.44, 45

In a case-control study, the ethanolic bark extract of T. arjuna was found to significantly inhibit platelet aggregation in controls and in patients with coronary artery disease. Additionally, it was found to attenuate calcium release and P-selectin expression.46

A case report described a 50-year-old man with beta-thalassemia minor and hyperlipoproteinemia(a), hypertension, and with an elevated Lp(a) level of 51.8 mg/dL. After 6 months of taking bark stem powder T. arjuna 500 mg 3 times daily, his Lp(a) level dropped to 39 mg/dL.47, 48


In vitro/Animal data

In combination with E. officinalis and T. chebula, T. bellirica reduced cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits.49 In another report, T. bellirica reduced lipid levels in hypercholesterolemic animals.50 Fractions of T. arjuna at 175 and 350 mg/kg body weight were found to exert significant effects on lipid levels to varying extents in mice with PX-407 induced hyperlipidemia.51 Triphala, consisting of T. chebula, T. belerica, and Emblica officinalis, was given 1 g/kg for 48 days to hypercholesterolemic mice and was found to significantly reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), triglyceride (TG), and total cholesterol levels.52 In rabbits, T. arjuna was found to reduce total cholesterol, LDL and TG levels, increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, and reduce atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta.53

In obese TSOD mice with type 2 diabetes mellitus, administration of a hot water extract of T. bellirica fruit caused significant suppression in the rise of glucose levels following a glucose load, and decreased TG levels, and was associated with reduced TG content in the liver. T. bellirica was found to exert inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase. Findings from the study suggest a potential role of T. bellirica for components of metabolic syndrome.54

Clinical data

A reduction in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in humans has also been reported with T. arjuna bark extract at a dosage of 500 mg daily.55

Diabetes mellitus

In vitro/Animal data

Chebulagic acid, isolated from T. chebula, was found to exert noncompetitive and reversible inhibition of maltase, suggesting a potential role in the management of diabetes via alpha-glucosidase inhibition.56 In another study, T. chebula fruit extract demonstrated inhibition against alpha-glucosidase, with the ethyl acetate extract exerting the strongest inhibition, likely because of the high content of chebulagic and chebulinic acids.57 Additionally, chebulagic acid 100 mg/kg orally was found to significantly decrease postprandial blood glucose levels in Sprague-Dawley rats receiving maltose (127 ± 6 mg/dL) compared with controls (165 ± 8 m/dL). However, this effect was not noted in rats receiving sucrose or glucose loads.58

In streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, daily oral administration of an aqueous extract of T. chebula for 2 months was found to decrease the blood glucose level by 43% (P < 0.01) and significantly reduce the hemoglobin A1c level.59

A 50% methanolic extract of T. arjuna was found to inhibit amylase activity.60

Clinical data

No clinical data exist regarding the use of Terminalia for diabetes mellitus.

Other uses


Chebulagic acid extracted from T. chebula suppressed the onset and progression of collagen-induced arthritis in mice.61


Experiments in mice51, 62, 63 and human tissue8, 64 as well as one clinical trial55 have demonstrated antioxidant action of T. arjuna and T. chebula species.


In clinical trials and animal experiments, T. bellirica11 and T. arjuna, individually62 and in combination,65 exhibited hepatoprotective effects. In Swiss albino mice exposed to carbon tetrachloride, aqueous T. arjuna extract was found to protect against alterations in glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase levels, suggesting antioxidant defense activities.66


A 10% concentrated mouth rinse made from the fruit of T. chebula was found to increase salivary pH and buffering capacity and decrease microbial count (Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli). However, the peak effect on pH and buffering capacity were noted at 30 minutes after rinse and declined by 90 minutes after rinse.67

Dermatological effects

A water-in-oil emulsion of T. chebula applied topically increased moisture content following application. The effect was not significant with respect to time, but was with regard to base (vehicle) and formulation. Erythema was also reduced. However, effects on skin melanin and sebum were not important.68 In addition, Triphala, a formulation consisting of T. chebula, T. bellirica, and Phyllanthus emblica, prepared as a 10% w/w ointment, was found to significantly improve wound closure in rats from day 4 and onward. Complete wound healing was noted at day 16 in rats treated with Triphala, compared with 25 days in the untreated group. The bacterial count was also less on day 4 in those treated with Triphala compared with controls.69

GI effects

In a study of rats, rats treated with morphine and given 125 and 250 mg/kg of T. chebula seeds produced similar numbers of fecal pellets compared with those rats given saline.70

T. arjuna at doses of 400 and 500 mg/kg exerted gastroprotective effects against diclofenac sodium induced ulceration in a murine model. Specifically, rats receiving T. arjuna showed a significant reduction in the lesion index compared with controls.71 In a similar study, T. arjuna was gastroprotective (ie, antiulcer and ulcer-healing activity) against 80% ethanol, diclofenac sodium, and dexamethasone-induced ulceration in doses of 100, 400 and 200 mg/kg, respectively.72

Protective effects against urolithiasis

T. chebula prevented injury against calcium oxalate–induced damage in both NRK-52E and MDCK renal epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a potential role against urolithiasis.73

Antidepressant effects

Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of T. bellirica showed antidepressant effects in mice. Specifically, a dose-dependent reduction in immobility time in the forced swim test and tail suspension test occurred in mice receiving the aqueous extract as well as with the 100 mg/kg ethanolic extract. In addition, the dose of aqueous extract 200 mg/kg and dose of ethanolic extract 100 mg/kg were found to be equivalent to imipramine 15 mg/kg and fluoxetine 20 mg/kg when given for 10 successive days.74


Clinical studies have been conducted in cardiovascular disorders using T. arjuna bark extract 500 mg every 8 hours.41, 42, 43 Dosages for other Terminalia species have not been clinically defined.

Pregnancy / Lactation

Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking; avoid use. One source cautions against taking T. bellirica and T. chebula during pregnancy.4


None well documented. Potentiation of the anticoagulant effect of warfarin and other anticoagulants might be expected because T. arjuna bark extract exhibits antiplatelet and anticoagulant action similar to that of aspirin.37

Adverse Reactions

Evidence suggests extracts of T. arjuna are well tolerated. Adverse reactions similar to those seen with placebo (constipation, headache, abdominal discomfort, body ache) were described in one clinical trial42 while mild gastritis was noted in another.41 T. arjuna also exhibits antiplatelet and anticoagulant activity.37 In a study of rats, T. arjuna extract decreased thyroid hormone levels.75

Information on other species is limited.


There were no toxicities when T. arjuna was given at a dose of 2,000 mg/kg to mice.51


1. Terminalia Carolinensis. USDA, NRCS. 2007. The PLANTS Database (, May 9, 2007). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA. Accessed February 4, 2013.2. Terminalia arjuna. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network—(GRIN) [database online]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Accessed February 4, 2013.3. Evans WC. Trease and Evans’ Pharmacognosy, 14th ed. London: WB Saunders; 1996:493.4. Chevallier A. Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. New York, NY: DK Publishing; 1996:141,273.5. Bruneton J. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants. Hatton CK, trans. Paris, France: Lavoisier; 1995:333.6. Biswas M, Bhattacharya S, Ghosh AK, et al. Antitumour activity of Terminalia arjuna leaf against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice. Nat Prod Res. 2012;26(12):1141-1144.220172597. Xie P, Chen S, Liang Y, Wang X, Tian R, Upton R. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis—a rational approach for quality assessment of traditional Chinese herbal medicine. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1112(1-2):171-180.8. Kim HG, Cho HG, Jeong EY, Lim JH, Lee SH, Lee HS. Growth-inhibiting activity of active component isolated from Terminalia chebula fruits against intestinal bacteria. J Food Prot. 2006;69(9):2205-2209.169955259. Yadav RN, Rathore K. A new cardenolide from the roots of Terminalia arjuna. Fitoterapia. 2001;72(4):459-461.1139528010. Pawar RS, Bhutani KK. Effect of oleanane triterpenoids from Terminalia arjuna—a cardioprotective drug on the process of respiratory oxyburst. Phytomedicine. 2005;12(5):391-393.1595737511. Anand KK, Singh B, Saxena AK, Chandan BK, Gupta VN, Bhardwai V. 3,4,5-Trihydroxy benzoic acid (gallic acid), the hepatoprotective principle in the fruits of Terminalia bellirica-bioassay guided activity. Pharmacol Res. 1997;36(4):315-321.942562212. Sato Y, Oketani H, Singyouchi K, et al. Extraction and purification of effective antimicrobial constituents of Terminalia chebula RETS against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Biol Pharm Bull. 1997;20(4):401-404.914521813. Aqil F, Kahn MS, Owais M, Ahmad I. Effect of certain bioactive plant extracts on clinical isolates of beta-lactamase producing methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Basic Microbiol. 2005;45(2):106-114.1581286714. Bonjar GH. Inhibition of Clotrimazole-resistant Candida albicans by plants used in Iranian folkloric medicine. Fitoterapia. 2004;75(1):74-76.1469322415. Kannan P, Ramadevi SR, Hopper W. Antibacterial activity of Terminalia chebula fruit extract. Afr J Microbiol Res. 2009;3(4):180-184.16. Aneja KR, Sharma C, Joshi R. Antimicrobial activity of Terminalia arjuna Wight & Arn.: an ethnomedicinal plant against pathogens causing ear infection. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;78(1):68-74.2239224117. Rani P, Khullar N. Antimicrobial evaluation of some medicinal plants for their anti-enteric potential against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi. Phytother Res. 2004;18(8):670-673.1547630118. Vonshak A, Barazani O, Sathiyamoorthy P, Shaler R, Vardy D, Golan-Goldhirsh A. Screening South Indian medicinal plants for antifungal activity against cutaneous pathogens. Phytother Res. 2003;17(9):1123-1125.1459560219. Bonjar GH. Antibacterial screening of plants used in Iranian folkloric medicine. Fitoterapia. 2004;75(2):231-235.1503093320. Dutta BK, Rahman I, Das TK. Antifungal activity of Indian plant extracts. Mycoses. 1998;41(11-12):535-536. 991989921. Ahmad I, Mehmood Z, Mohammad F. Screening of some Indian medicinal plants for their antimicrobial properties. J Ethnopharmacol. 1998;62(2):183-193.974189022. Phadke SA, Kulkarni SD. Screening of in vitro antibacterial activity of Terminalia chebula, Eclapta alba, and Ocimum sanctum. Indian J Med Sci. 1989;43(5):113-117.279321323. Shiraki K, Yukawa T, Kurokawa M, Kageyama S. Cytomegalovirus infection and its possible treatment with herbal medicines [in Japanese]. Nippon Rinsho. 1998;56(1):156-160.946568224. Yukawa T, Kurokawa M, Sato H. Prophylactic treatment of cytomegalovirus infection with traditional herbs. Antiviral Res. 1996;32(2):63-70.889116525. Kurokawa M, Nagasaka K, Hirabayashi T, et al. Efficacy of traditional herbal medicines in combination with acyclovir against herpes simplex virus type I infection in vitro and in vivo. Antiviral Res. 1995;27(1-2):19-37.26. el-Mekkawy S, Meselhy MR, Kusumoto IT, Kadota S, Hattori M, Namba T. Inhibitory effects of Egyptian folk medicines on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase. Chem Pharm Bull. 1995;43(4):641-648.754131727. Badmaev V, Nowakowski M. Protection of epithelial cells against Influenza A virus by a plant derived biological response modifier Ledretan-96. Phytother Res. 2000;14(4):245-249.1086196628. Saleem A, Husheem M, Härkönen P, Pihlaja K. Inhibition of cancer cell growth by crude extract and the phenolics of Terminalia chebula retz. fruit. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;81(3):327-336.1212723329. Nagpal A, Meena LS, Kaur S, Grover IS, Wadhwa R, Kaul SC. Growth suppression of human transformed cells by treatment with bark extracts from a medicinal plant, Terminalia arjuna. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol. 2000;36(8):544-547.1114975530. Sivalokanathan S, Vijayababu MR, Balasubramanian MP. Effects of Terminalia arjuna bark extract on apoptosis of human hepatoma cell line HepG2. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12(7):1018-1024.1653484031. Verma N, Vinayak M. Effect of Terminalia arjuna on antioxidant defense system in cancer. Mol Biol Rep. 2009;36(1):159-164.1853703932. Saxena M, Faridi U, Mishra R, et al. Cytotoxic agents from Terminalia arjuna. Planta Med. 2007;73(14):1486-1490.1800819933. Dhanarasu S, Selvam M, Abdel-Tawab Salama SM, Shanmugam M, Sethuraman P. Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) modulates circulatory antioxidants on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Oman Med J. 2010;25(4):276-281.2204335734. Pinmai K, Chunlaratthanabhorn S, Ngamkitidechakul C, Soonthornchareon N, Hahnvajanawong C. Synergistic growth inhibitory effects of Phyllanthus emblica and Terminalia bellerica extracts with conventional cytotoxic agents: doxorubicin and cisplatin against human hepatocellular carcinoma and lung cancer cells. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14(10):1491-1497.1833093635. Sandhya T, Lathika KM, Pandey BN, et al. Protection against radiation oxidative damage in mice by Triphala. Mutat Res. 2006;609(1):17-25.1686059236. Gangadevi V, Muthumary J. Taxol production by Pestalotiopsis terminaliae, an endophytic fungus of Terminalia arjuna (arjun tree). Biotchnol Appl Biochem. 2009;52(pt 1):9-15.1825472337. Sumitra M, Manikandan P, Kumar DA, et al. Experimental myocardial necrosis in rats: role of arjunolic acid on platelet aggregation, coagulation and antioxidant status. Mol Cell Biochem. 2001;224(1-2):135-142.1169319038. Tariq M, Hussain SJ, Asif M, Jahan M. Protective effect of fruit extracts of Emblica officinalis (Gaertn.) and Terminalia bellirica (Roxb.) in experimental myocardial necrosis in rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 1977;15(6):485-486.59888539. Nammi S, Gudavalli R, Babu BS, Lodagala DS, Boini KM. Possible mechanisms of hypotension produced 70% alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna (L.) in anaesthetized dogs. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2003;3:5.1456122940. Parveen A, Babbar R, Agarwal S, Kotwani A, Fahim M. Mechanistic clues in the cardioprotective effect of Terminalia arjuna bark extract in isoproterenol-induced chronic heart failure in rats. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2011;11(1):48-57.2111673641. Dwivedi S, Aggarwal A, Agarwal MP, Rajpal S. Role of Terminalia arjuna in ischemic mitral regurgitation. Int J Cardiol. 2005;100(3):507-508.42. Bharani A, Ganguli A, Mathur LK, Jamra Y, Raman PG. Efficacy of Terminalia arjuna in chronic stable angina: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study comparing Terminalia arjuna with isosorbide mononitrate. Indian Heart J. 2002;54(2):170-175.1208638043. Bharani A, Ahirwar LK, Jain N. Terminalia arjuna reverses impaired endothelial function in chronic smokers. Indian Heart J. 2004;56(2):123-128.1537713344. Maulik SK, Talwar KK. Therapeutic potential of Terminalia arjuna in cardiovascular disorders. Am J Cardiovasac Drugs. 2012;12(3):157-163.2258314645. Bharani A, Ganguly A, Bhargava KD. Salutary effect of Terminalia arjuna in patients with severe refractory heart failure. Int J Cardiol. 1995;49(3):191-199.764966546. Malik N, Dhawan V, Bahl A, Kaul D. Inhibitory effects of Terminalia arjuna on platelet activation in vitro in healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease. Platelets. 2009;20(3):183-190.1943733647. Dwivedi S, Kumar V. Beta-thalassemia, hyperlipoproteinemia(a), and metabolic syndrome: its low-cost holistic therapy. J Altern Complement. 2007;13(2):287-289.1738877248. Dwivedi S, Aggarwal A. Indigenous drugs in ischemic heart disease in patients with diabetes. J Altern Complement. 2009;15(11):1215-1221.1992225349. Thakur CP, Thakur B, Singh S, et al. The Ayurvedic medicines Haritaki, Amala, and Bahira reduce cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. Int J Cardiol. 1988;21(2):167-175.322506850. Shaila HP, Udupa AL, Udupa SL. Preventive actions of Terminalia bellirica in experimentally induced atherosclerosis. Int J Cardiol. 1995;49(2):101-106.762888151. Subramaniam S, Ramachandran S, Uthrapathi S, Gnamanickam VR, Dubey GP. Anti-hyperlipidemic and antioxidant potential of different fractions of Terminalia arjuna Roxb. bark against PX-407 induced hyperlipidemia. Indian J Exp Biol. 2011;49(4):282-288.2161489252. Saravanan S, Srikumar R, Manikandan S, Jeya Parthasarathy N, Sheela Devi R. Hypolipidemic effect of Triphala in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2007;127(2):385-388.1726815953. Subramaniam S, Subramaniam R, Rajapandian S, Uthrapathi S, Gnanamanickam VR, Dubey GP. Anti-atherogenic activity of ethanolic fraction of Terminalia arjuna Bark on hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:487916.10.1093/ecam/neq00354. Makihara H, Shimada T, Machida E, et al. Preventive effect of Terminalia bellirica on obesity and metabolic disorders in spontaneously obese type 2 diabetic model mice. J Nat Med. 2012;66(3):459-467.2210516055. Gupta R, Singhal S, Goyle A, Sharma VN. Antioxidant and hypocholesterolaemic effects of Terminalia arjuna tree-bark and powder: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. J Assoc Physicians India. 2001;49:231-235.1122513656. Gao H, Huang YN, Gao B, Kawabata J. Chebulagic acid is a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem .2008;72(2):601-603.1825646957. Sasidharan I, Sundaresan A, Nisha VM, Kirishna MS, Raghu KG, Jayamurthy P. Inhibitory effect of Terminalia chebulai Retz. fruit extracts on digestive enzyme related to diabetes and oxidative stress. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2012;27(4):578-586.2251272458. Huang YN, Zhao DD, Gao B, et al. Anti-hyperglycemic effect of chebulagic acid from the fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. In J Mol Sci. 2012;13(5):6320-6333.2275436759. Murali YK, Anand P, Tandon V, Singh R, Chandra R, Murthy PS. Long-term effects of Terminalia chebula Retz. on hyperglycemia and associated hyperlipidemia, tissue glycogen content and in vitro release of insulin in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2007;115(10):641-646.1805859860. Saha S, Verma R. Inhibitory potential of traditional herbs on α-amylase activity. Pharm Biol. 2012;50(3):326-331.2213614761. Lee SI, Hyun PM, Kim SH, et al. Suppression of the onset and progression of collagen-induced arthritis by chebulagic acid screened from a natural product library. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;52(1):345-353.1564109062. Manna P, Sinha M, Sil PC. Aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna prevents carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic and renal disorders. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006;6:33.1701020963. Gandhi N, Nair C. Radiation protection by Terminalia chebula: some mechanistic aspects. Mol Cell Biochem. 2005;277(1-2):43-48.1613271364. Na M, Bae K, Kang SS, et al. Cytoprotective effect on oxidative stress and inhibitory effect on cellular aging of Terminalia chebula fruit. Phytother Res. 2004;18(9):737-741.1547820365. Huseini HF, Alavian SM, Heshmat R, Heydari MR, Abolmaali K. The efficacy of Liv-52 on liver cirrhotic patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled first approach. Phytomedicine. 2005;12(9):619-624.1619404766. Manna P, Sinha M, Sil PC. Phytomedicinal activity of Terminalia arjuna against carbon tetrachloride induced cardiac oxidative stress. Pathophysiology. 2007;14(2):71-78.1761108567. Carounanidy U, Satyanarayanan R, Velmurugan A. Use of an aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula as an anticaries agent: a clinical study. Indian J Dent Res. 2007;18(4):152-156.1793848968. Akhtar N, Khan AB, Muhammad S, et al. Formulation and characterization of a cream containing Terminalia chebula extract. Forsch Komplementmed. 2012;19(1):20-25.2239892269. Kumar MS, Kirubanandan S, Sripriya R, Sehgal PK. Triphala promotes healing of infected full-thickness dermal wound. J Surg Res. 2008;144(1):94-101.1766230470. Mard SA, Veisi A, Naseri MKG, Mikaili P. Spasmogenic activity of the seed of Terminalia chebula Retz in rat small intestine: in vivo and in vitro studies. Malaysian J Med Sci. 2011;18(3):18-26.2213559771. Devi RS, Narayna S, Vani G, et al. Ulcer protective effect of Terminalia arjuna on gastric mucosal defensive mechanism in experimental rats. Phytother Res. 2007;21(8):762-767.1747160372. Devi RS, Narayan S, Vani G, Devi CSS. Gastroprotective effect of Terminalia arjuna bark on diclofenac sodium induced gastric ulcer. Chem Biol Interact. 2007;167(1):71-83.1732712873. Tayal S, Duggal S, Bandyopadhyay P, Aggarwal A, Tandon S, Tandon C. Cytoprotective role of the aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula on renal epithelial cells. Int Braz J Urol. 2012;38(2):204-214. 2255502874. Dhingra D, Valecha R, Evaulation of antidepressant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Terminalia bellirica Roxb. fruits in mice. Indian J Exp Biol. 2007;45(7):610-616.1782185675. Parmar HS, Panda S, Jatwa R, Kar A. Cardio-protective role of Terminalia arjuna bark extract is possibly mediated through alteration in thyroid hormones. Pharmazie. 2006;61(9):793-795.1702015876. Zaidi SF, Muhammad JS, Shahryar S, et al. Anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of selected Pakistani medicinal plants in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;141(1):403-410.22433535


This information relates to an herbal, vitamin, mineral or other dietary supplement. This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this product. This information does not endorse this product as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about this product. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this product. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. You should talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this product.

This product may adversely interact with certain health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, foods, or other dietary supplements. This product may be unsafe when used before surgery or other medical procedures. It is important to fully inform your doctor about the herbal, vitamins, mineral or any other supplements you are taking before any kind of surgery or medical procedure. With the exception of certain products that are generally recognized as safe in normal quantities, including use of folic acid and prenatal vitamins during pregnancy, this product has not been sufficiently studied to determine whether it is safe to use during pregnancy or nursing or by persons younger than 2 years of age.

Further information

The content of Holevn is solely for the purpose of providing information about Thuốc Terminalia  and is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Please contact your nearest doctor or clinic, hospital for advice. We do not accept liability if the patient arbitrarily uses the drug without following a doctor’s prescription.

Reference from:


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here