Thuốc Spinach

Thuốc Spinach
Thuốc Spinach

Holevn Health share articles about :Thuốc Spinach  , side effects – dosage , Thuốc Spinach what disease treatment.Other noted issues. Please refer to the details below.

Scientific Name(s): Spinacia oleracea L.
Common Name(s): Spinach

Medically reviewed by Last updated on Sep 23, 2019.

Clinical Overview


Many of the reported actions of spinach are related to its antioxidant properties. It may play a role in the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, age-related macular degeneration, and the degeneration of immune and neurological systems. It has also been investigated in satiety trials for curbing hunger and reducing the desire for salty and sweet snacks. Although dosage forms of spinach other than its natural state as food are available, none can be reliably recommended due to a lack of quality clinical trials.


Clinical evidence is lacking to provide a specific therapeutic dosage of spinach. As a food, spinach has received generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).


Contraindications have not been identified.


GRAS when used as food. Avoid dosages above those found in food because safety and efficacy are unproven.


Absorption of magnesium, calcium, and zinc, but not nonheme iron, may be decreased by concurrent consumption of oxalates in spinach.

Adverse Reactions

Allergic reactions to spinach are rare. Cross-sensitivity to beets and chard has been reported, and a common allergenic protein has been identified in spinach and tomatoes that can lead to angioedema and urticaria. Gout may be precipitated in predisposed individuals because of the purine content in spinach. Consumption of spinach in infants younger than 4 months is not recommended because calcium absorption may be decreased.


No data.

Scientific Family

  • Chenopodiaceae


The Chenopodiaceae family consists of 100 species of evergreen or semi-evergreen annuals, perennials, and shrubs. Other members of this group include beet and chard. In temperate climates, spinach reaches edible maturity quickly (37 to 45 days) and thrives best during cool, moist seasons. There are many varieties of spinach, all of which have large, dark-green leaves on upright plants. The leaves are the most frequently used part of spinach.Sanders 2001, USDA 2007


Spinach contains a number of antioxidants, including carotenoids, polyphenols,Bakshi 2004, Pool-Zobel 1997 and flavonoids (quercetin).Torres-Sánchez 2000 The carotenoids are composed of 2 main classes, carotenes (beta-carotene) and xanthophylls (lutein).Richer 2000 Glycolipids (sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol) are found in the chloroplast membrane.Kuriyama 2005 Spinach is regarded as a valuable dietary source of vitamin A, nonheme iron, folate, and lutein. Studies show much intrinsic variation in the bioavailability of these substances, and variations in cooking methods also contribute to variations.Chung 2004, Hannon-Fletcher 2004, Kopsell 2006, McKillop 2002, Tang 2005 Spinach also contains oxalates and nitrates that may have negative effects.Betsche 2005, Brogren 2003, Chen 2003, Tamme 2006

Uses and Pharmacology

Activity of spinach has mostly been attributed to its antioxidant mechanisms.Ayes 2004, Hammond 1997, Hughes 2001, Richer 2000 While consumption of spinach significantly increases the levels of plasma lutein, changes in plasma beta-carotene, retinol, and the metabolite retinoic acid are not significant, and the antioxidant capacity of plasma does not increase.Rühl 2008, Schirrmacher 2010

Bone density

Animal data

A 12-week study in a rat model of osteopenia found that 750 and 1,000 mg/kg/day doses of spinach extract reversed bone loss and demonstrated effects on trabecular bone similar to estrogen therapy. The extract also attenuated weight gain.Adhikary 2017

Clinical data

An epidemiological study among young Japanese women found an association between low bone mass and reduced daily intake of yellow and green vegetables.Fujii 2009


Several epidemiological studies suggest an association between spinach consumption and the inhibition of cancerBertone 2001, Kirsh 2007, Kotake-Nara 2001, Longnecker 1997, Slattery 2000, Torres-Sánchez 2000; however, in vitro experiments and clinical studies evaluating the potential role of spinach and/or spinach extracts in cancer are limited.Kuriyama 2005, Lomnitski 2003

Animal and in vitro data

An antioxidant extract derived from spinach leaves reduced papilloma multiplicity in a mouse model (P<0.01).Nyska 2001 This same extract has been used in several experiments and demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on human prostate cancer cell proliferation.Asai 2004, Bakshi 2004, Kotake-Nara 2001, Lomnitski 2003 Certain fractions of spinach extracts exert a suppressive effect on gastric cancer cell cycle proliferation.Kuriyama 2005, Maeda 2005, Maeda 2007 Spinach glycoglycerolipids have been shown to inhibit angiogenesis in human cell lines and in mouse tumor models.Maeda 2011

Clinical data

Tomato juice, carrot juice, and spinach powder given daily to healthy volunteers for a 2-week period suppressed DNA strand breaks, a finding that supports the hypothesis that carotenoid-containing plant products exert a cancer-protective effect via a decrease in oxidative and other damage to human DNA.Pool-Zobel 1997

Cardiovascular disease

Clinical data

Analysis of the landmark Framingham Heart Study showed that an increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, the dominant sources of folate in the human diet, was associated with higher levels of plasma folate, lower levels of plasma homocysteine, and a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Spinach consumption can increase plasma folate concentrationCastenmiller 2000; however, spinach is only one of many potential dietary options.

Spinach and other green leafy vegetables are the richest sources of dietary nitrate and can augment nitric oxide (NO) status, a critical regulator of endothelial function.Bondonno 2012, Liu 2013 Because flavonoids have been shown to increase endogenous endothelial NO production, a randomized, controlled, crossover trial investigated the acute effects of nitrate-rich spinach and flavonoid-rich apples on NO status and endothelial function in 30 healthy adults. A significant interaction was observed on plasma nitrosylated species, nitrite levels, and nitric oxide with apple (120 g apple flesh plus 80 g apple skins) and spinach (200 g thawed spinach) interventions; the effects were different when apple and spinach interventions were consumed together versus individually (P<0.001). Compared with controls, consumption of apple, spinach, and apple plus spinach test meals resulted in higher levels of all 3 nitrogen parameters (NO status), flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery, systolic blood pressure, and pulse pressure. However, contrary to the hypothesis, the combination of apples and spinach did not result in an additive or synergistic effect on NO status or endothelial function.Bondonno 2012 Similarly, in another randomized, controlled, crossover trial conducted in healthy adults (N=26; 20 women), consumption of a spinach test meal (250 g of cooked spinach containing nitrate 220 mg) improved overall acute pulse pressure and systolic blood pressure, as well as large artery elasticity, cardiac ejection time, estimated cardiac output, estimated stroke volume, and total vascular impedance.Liu 2013 In contrast to studies conducted in healthy participants, a short-term, randomized, controlled, crossover trial in 41 adults with high-normal blood pressure showed no beneficial effects of a nitrate-rich diet on blood pressure or arterial stiffness. Participants not taking antihypertensive medication consumed a high-nitrate diet (mean, 400 mg/day of nitrate) for 7 days that included 250 g/day of frozen spinach and 120 g/day of fresh green leafy salad vegetables (ie, lettuce, spinach, salad rocket). After 7 days, an increase in salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite levels were observed compared to a low-nitrate diet; however, no effects were observed on blood pressure, heart rate, or measures of arterial stiffness.Bondonno 2014

CNS effects

Animal data

Studies in rats have demonstrated that spinach extracts are effective in preventing cognitive deficits and in reversing age-related motor and cognitive CNS deficits.Joseph 1998, Joseph 1999

An improvement in delayed eyeblink conditioning (an Alzheimer disease model) has been demonstrated in rats fed spinach.Cartford 2002 Mechanisms by which spinach acts are thought to be related to modulation of age-related increases in inflammatory response.Cartford 2002, Youdim 2001

Clinical data

A randomized, controlled crossover study (N=30) conducted in healthy volunteers found no short-term positive or negative effect on cognitive function or mood measures subsequent to a test meal that included spinach, apple, or apple plus spinach compared with control. Total quercetin glycosides and (-)-epicatechin content provided by the apple was 184 mg and 180 mg, respectively, whereas spinach provided 182 mg of nitrate. An increase in nitrosothiols and other nitro species was confirmed in saliva and urine samples; however, this short-term augmentation of nitric oxide status did not result in short-term CNS improvements.Bondonno 2014

Exercise-induced oxidative stress

Clinical trials

In an open, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (N=20), consumption of 1 g/kg/day of fresh spinach for 14 days by healthy young men significantly increased total antioxidant capacity compared with baseline and placebo. Compared to the placebo group, increases in total antioxidant capacity were observed in the spinach group before (P=0.001) and after (P=0.016) exercise. Increases in oxidative stress and muscle injury parameters in the placebo group were mitigated with consumption of spinach such that malondialdehyde, protein carbonyls, uric acid, and creatine kinase were significantly lower at multiple time points postexercise.Bohlooli 2015

Immune system effects

Spinach is a dietary source of the carotenoid antioxidants beta-carotene and lutein, and thus, is postulated to help maintain immune cell integrity by reducing reactive oxygen species.Hughes 2001

Metabolic dysfunction

Clinical data

In a 2-day, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover satiety study in 60 overweight or obese adults, administration of 5 g of a commercially available spinach extract did not significantly affect triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), free fatty acids, or high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. However, fasting and postprandial glucose was significantly reduced with spinach extract supplementation compared with placebo (P<0.01).Rebello 2015 In another controlled study (n=14), effects of spinach on postprandial glycemic and lipidemic responses were evaluated in normal weight and obese (but otherwise healthy) young adults. Participants (20 to 35 years of age) received 3 test meals, with a 1-week washout between each. Consumption of 75 g of boiled spinach (100 g fresh) with a fat-rich meal (bread and butter) was found to have no effect on postprandial glucose, serum insulin, triglyceride, LDL, or HDL levels compared with the bread and butter alone meal in either the normal weight or obese participants. However, in obese participants, a significantly smaller decrease in alpha-tocopherol/lipid was observed after the spinach plus bread/butter meal than the bread/butter meal (P<0.05), an effect not seen in the normal weight subjects.Maruyama 2013

Ophthalmic effects

Studies in the 1940s and 1950s showed that xanthophylls improved night vision and adaptation to dusk.Richer 2000 Lutein and zeaxanthin, abundant in green leafy vegetables such as spinach, are highly concentrated in the macula of the eye and are believed to limit tissue damage by absorbing blue light.

Clinical data

Studies have shown that diets rich in lutein and zeaxanthin may lower the risk for age-related macular degeneration and may have a role in cataract prevention. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation and its chemical oxidation by free radicals is the suggested mechanism of action.Ayes 2004, Hammond 1997, Richer 2000 One study compared the effects of lutein- and zeaxanthin-rich foods and supplements on macular pigment level (MPL). Both dietary consumption of spinach powder and administration of lutein and zeaxanthin supplements for 8 weeks in healthy adults resulted in a change in serum lutein and zeaxanthin that was associated with a change in MPL. This effect was most obvious in participants with low baseline MPL. No effects on inflammation and oxidation markers were observed.Graydon 2012


Animal and in vitro data

Membrane proteins (thylakoids) from the leaves of spinach have been evaluated in rats for their effects on satiety. Thylakoids inhibit the lipase/colipase hydrolysis of triacylglycerols in vitro, and suppress food intake, reduce body weight gain, and raise the satiety hormone cholecystokinin in rats.Köhnke 2009

Clinical data

In a study of healthy adults (N=11) given a high-fat meal with or without the addition of thylakoids, the satiety hormones cholecystokinin and leptin were reduced and the hunger hormone ghrelin was reduced after a single meal enriched with thylakoids.Köhnke 2009 In 2 double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover studies conducted with thylakoids extracted from spinach cell walls, spinach extract significantly reduced hunger (P<0.01) in healthy normal weight and overweight adults.Rebello 2015, Stenblom 2015 Compared with placebo, satiety and hunger as well as craving for snacks were decreased acutely by administration of spinach extract (5 g of thylakoids equivalent to 100 g of spinach) prior to a test meal in 22 nonobese healthy Swedish women 40 to 70 years of age. A desire for salty snacks remained lower from 60 minutes to 360 minutes after the intervention, whereas the decrease in yearning for sweet snacks started at 15 minutes and continued for 420 minutes after intervention.Stenblom 2015 In a study of 60 overweight or obese adults, 5 g of a commercially available spinach extract given before lunch significantly reduced hunger (P=0.04), increased fullness (P=0.04), reduced longing for food (P<0.01), and reduced prospective intake (P=0.01) compared with placebo. Although thirst and the desire for salty or savory snacks were also reduced significantly, the desire for sweets was not. No significant differences were observed in subsequent intake at dinner, in “liking” (affective reaction reflecting a pleasant feeling at the consumption of food) and “wanting” (underlying drive that mediates the desire to consume a food) assessments 4 hours after the meal, or in triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, free fatty acids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. However, fasting and postlunch glucose levels were significantly reduced with spinach extract supplementation (P<0.01).Rebello 2015

Tooth sensitivity

Clinical data

In a 12-week, randomized controlled trial (N=60), use of an herbal toothpaste twice daily that contained 10 g of spinach, a number of other herbs, and potassium nitrate (a known desensitizer) improved dental sensitivity to air and cold water compared with baseline and with a placebo dentrifice (without potassium nitrate). The herbs included in the spinach formulation were reported to have bactericidal properties that protect against periodontal pathogens, gingivitis, plaque, and bad breath, although these effects were not tested in the study. Although the authors declared that spinach and potassium nitrate were responsible for reducing dental hypersensitivity because these agents were lacking in the control, neither the study design nor the resulting data provided any support for that claim. No adverse effects were observed.Kumari 2013


Spinach is being investigated as a plant-derived, edible vehicle for anthrax vaccineSussman 2003 as well as a vehicle for the HIV-1 Tat protein, a prospective vaccine candidate.Karasev 2005


Clinical evidence is lacking to provide a specific therapeutic dosage of spinach. As a food, spinach has GRAS status; however, overconsumption may pose a potential risk because of the high nitrate content of spinach.Lomnitski 2003

Pregnancy / Lactation

GRAS when used as food. Avoid dosages higher than those found in food because safety and efficacy have not been established.


Warfarin interferes with the hepatic synthesis of vitamin K–dependent coagulation factors. Fluctuations in vitamin K intake can cause changes in anticoagulant response. Because spinach has a high vitamin K content, it can decrease the international normalized ratio (INR) in patients taking warfarinBandolier 2001; however, bioavailability of the vitamin K content is low. Studies in patients receiving warfarin with single meals of spinach resulted in a statistically significant, but not clinically important, reduction in the INR.Bohn 2004, Karlson 1986, Schurgers 2004

Absorption of magnesium, calcium, and zinc may be decreased by concurrent consumption of oxalates. Decreases in magnesium absorption have been demonstrated in healthy adults, but this is likely to be offset by the magnesium content of spinach. No decrease in nonheme iron absorption by oxalates has been observed in experiments.Betsche 2005, Genannt Bonsmann 2008, Sanchez 1997

Antigenotoxicity activity has been demonstrated via inhibition of cytochrome P450 1A2 enzyme in vitro. Little is known regarding in vivo effects.Rodríguez-Fragoso 2011

Adverse Reactions

Allergic reactions to spinach are rare, with very few case reports in the literature.Ferrer 2011, Foti 2012, Sanchez 1997 Immunoglobulin E–mediated allergy to spinachSanchez 1997 and sensitization to spinach powderSchuller 2005 have been reported. Cross-reactivity to molds, mushrooms, beets, chard, and latex have been described, making it difficult to implicate spinach.Ferrer 2011, Herrera 2002, Herrera-Mozo 2006, Maillard 2000, Schuller 2005 However, cross-reactivity with beets and chard was confirmed with skin prick testing and immunoglobulin E binding assays in an 18-month-old boy who presented with perioral rash and generalized urticaria after eating spinach.Ferrer 2011 Additionally, spinach contains histamine, which can cause pseudoallergic reactions.Schuller 2005 Proteomic analysis of spinach and tomato identified a common allergenic protein, Rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase), that led to severe oral angioedema in a 23-year-old nonatopic female after consuming spinach leaves; she had a history of urticaria and angioedema after ingestion of raw or cooked spinach and tomato.Foti 2012

Because uric acid is a product of purine catabolism and spinach contains moderate amounts of purines, dietary reduction of purine intake may be appropriate in individuals predisposed to gout, which is caused by high levels of uric acid.Bandolier 2007, Ozçakar 2003 Spinach is not recommended in infants younger than 4 months because the oxalate content may reduce calcium absorption.Betsche 2005, Brogren 2003, Chen 2003 Large quantities of spinach and rhubarb were implicated as dietary sources of oxalate in a case of acute oxalate nephropathy secondary to orlistat-induced enteric hyperoxaluria in a 60-year-old obese woman with diabetes, hypothyroidism, gastroesophageal reflux, and renal colic.Kwan 2013 Methemoglobin formation is also possible through the plant’s nitrate content.Tamme 2006


There is little or no information regarding toxicity with the use of whole spinach leaves. An antioxidant extract derived from spinach leaves was nonmutagenic. Toxicological studies performed on this extract in mice, rats, and rabbits showed no toxicity, adverse reactions, or abnormalities.Lomnitski 2003 Spinach has been implicated in outbreaks of Escherichia coli food poisoning, including the autumn 2006 outbreak in the United States that resulted in approximately 100 hospitalizations and 3 deaths. Contamination may occur via organic fertilizers or irrigation water, or in postharvesting processing and bagging.Berger 2010, Doyle 2008, Heaton 2008, Morgan 2007


Adhikary S, Choudhary D, Ahmad N, et al. Dried and free flowing granules of Spinicia oleracea accelerate bone regeneration and alleviate postmenopausal osteoporosis. Menopause. 2017;24(6):686-698.29.28118295Asai A, Terasaki M, Nagao A. An epoxide-furanoid rearrangement of spinach neoxanthin occurs in the gastrointestinal tract of mice and in vitro: formation and cytostatic activity of neochrome stereoisomers. J Nutr. 2004;134(9):2237-2243.15333710Ayes for your eyes. Cataracts and macular degeneration are two common eye problems. But you can lower the chances that they’ll happen to you. Harv Health Lett. 2004;29(4):1-2.14980874Bakshi S, Bergman M, Dovrat S, Grossman S. Unique natural antioxidants (NAOs) and derived purified components inhibit cell cycle progression by downregulation of ppRb and E2F in human PC3 prostate cancer cells. FEBS Lett. 2004;573(1-3):31-37.15327971Things that affect our INR. Bandolier website. Published 2001. Accessed January 10, 2012.Purines in foods. Bandolier website. Published 2007. Accessed January 10, 2012.Berger CN, Sodha SV, Shaw RK, et al. Fresh fruit and vegetables as vehicles for the transmission of human pathogens. Environ Microbiol. 2010;12(9):2385-2397.20636374Bertone ER, Hankinson SE, Newcomb PA, et al. A population-based case-control study of carotenoid and vitamin A intake and ovarian cancer (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2001;12(1):83-90.11227928Betsche T, Fretzdorff B. Biodegradation of oxalic acid from spinach using cereal radicles. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53(25):9751-9758.16332126Bohlooli S, Barmaki S, Khoshkhahesh F, Nakhostin-Roohi B. The effect of spinach supplementation on exercise-induced oxidative stress. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2015;55(6):609-614.24921623Bohn T, Davidsson L, Walczyk T, Hurrell RF. Fractional magnesium absorption is significantly lower in human subjects from a meal served with an oxalate-rich vegetable, spinach, as compared with a meal served with kale, a vegetable with a low oxalate content. Br J Nutr. 2004;91(4):601-606.15035687Bondonno CP, Yang X, Croft KD, et al. Flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach augment nitric oxide status and improve endothelial function in healthy men and women: a randomized controlled trial. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;52(1):95-102.22019438Bondonno CP, Downey LA, Croft KD, et al. The acute effect of flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach on cognitive performance and mood in healthy men and women. Food Funct. 2014;5(5):849-858.24676365Bondonno CP, Liu AH, Croft KD, et al. Short-term effects of nitrate-rich green leafy vegetables on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in individuals with high-normal blood pressure. Free Radic Biol Med. 2014;77:353-362.25261227Brogren M, Savage GP. Bioavailability of soluble oxalate from spinach eaten with and without milk products. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2003;12(2):219-224.12810415Cartford MC, Gemma C, Bickford PC. Eighteen-month-old Fischer 344 rats fed a spinach-enriched diet show improved delay classical eyeblink conditioning and reduced expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and TNFbeta in the cerebellum. J Neurosci. 2002;22(14):5813-5816.12122042Castenmiller JJ, van de Poll CJ, West CE, Brouwer IA, Thomas CM, van Dusseldorp M. Bioavailability of folate from processed spinach in humans. Effect of food matrix and interaction with carotenoids. Ann Nutr Metab. 2000;44(4):163-169.11111131Chen Z, Ye Z, Zeng L, Yang W. Clinical investigation on gastric oxalate absorption. Chin Med J (Engl). 2003;116(11):1749-1751.14642151Chung HY, Rasmussen HM, Johnson EJ. Lutein bioavailability is higher from lutein-enriched eggs than from supplements and spinach in men. J Nutr. 2004;134(8):1887-1893.15284371Doyle MP, Erickson MC. Summer meeting 2007 – the problems with fresh produce: an overview. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;105(2):317-330.18284485Ferrer M, Redón B, Bartolomé B, Michavila A. Food allergy to spinach in an infant. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2011;39(6):378-379.21269751Foti C, Damiani E, Zambonin CG, et al. Urticaria and angioedema to rubisco allergen in spinach and tomato. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2012;108(1):60-61.22192968Fujii H, Noda T, Sairenchi T, Muto T. Daily intake of green and yellow vegetables is effective for maintaining bone mass in young women. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2009;218(2):149-154.19478471genannt Bonsmann SS, Walczyk T, Renggli S, Hurrell RF. Oxalic acid does not influence nonhaem iron absorption in humans: a comparison of kale and spinach meals. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008;62(3):336-341.17440529Graydon R, Hogg RE, Chakravarthy U, Young IS, Woodside JV. The effect of lutein- and zeaxanthin-rich foods v. supplements on macular pigment level and serological markers of endothelial activation, inflammation and oxidation: pilot studies in healthy volunteers. Br J Nutr. 2012;108(2):334-342.22313522Hammond BR Jr, Johnson EJ, Russell RM, et al. Dietary modification of human macular pigment density. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1997;38(9):1795-1801.9286268Hannon-Fletcher MP, Armstrong NC, Scott JM, et al. Determining bioavailability of food folates in a controlled intervention study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(4):911-918.15447898Heaton JC, Jones K. Microbial contamination of fruit and vegetables and the behaviour of enteropathogens in the phyllosphere: a review. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;104(3):613-626.17927745Herrera I, Moneo I, Caballero ML, de Paz S, Perez Pimiento A, Rebollo S. Food allergy to spinach and mushroom. Allergy. 2002;57(3):261-262.11906344Herrera-Mozo I, Ferrer B, Luís Rodriguez-Sanchez J, Juarez C. Description of a novel panallergen of cross-reactivity between moulds and foods. Immunol Invest. 2006;35(2):181-197.16698676Hughes DA. Dietary carotenoids and human immune function. Nutrition. 2001;17(10):823-827.11684388Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, et al. Long-term dietary strawberry, spinach, or vitamin E supplementation retards the onset of age-related neuronal signal-transduction and cognitive behavioral deficits. J Neurosci. 1998;18(19):8047-8055.9742171Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, et al. Reversals of age-related declines in neuronal signal transduction, cognitive, and motor behavioral deficits with blueberry, spinach, or strawberry dietary supplementation. J Neurosci. 1999;19(18):8114-8121.10479711Karasev AV, Foulke S, Wellens C, et al. Plant based HIV-1 vaccine candidate: Tat protein produced in spinach. Vaccine. 2005;23(15):1875-1880.15734059Karlson B, Leijd B, Hellström K. On the influence of vitamin K-rich vegetables and wine on the effectiveness of warfarin treatment. Acta Med Scand. 1986;220(4):347-350.3541503Kirsh VA, Peters U, Mayne ST, et al; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Prospective study of fruit and vegetable intake and risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007;99(15):1200-1209.17652276Köhnke R, Lindbo A, Larsson T, et al. Thylakoids promote release of the satiety hormone cholecystokinin while reducing insulin in healthy humans. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2009;44(6):712-719.19308799Kopsell DA, Lefsrud MG, Kopsell DE, Wenzel AJ, Gerweck C, Curran-Celentano J. Spinach cultigen variation for tissue carotenoid concentrations influences human serum carotenoid levels and macular pigment optical density following a 12-week dietary intervention. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54(21):7998-8005.17032001Kotake-Nara E, Kushiro M, Zhang H, Sugawara T, Miyashita K, Nagao A. Carotenoids affect proliferation of human prostate cancer cells. J Nutr. 2001;131(12):3303-3306.11739884Kumari M, Naik SB, Rao NS, Martande SS, Pradeep AR. Clinical efficacy of a herbal dentifrice on dentinal hypersensitivity: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Aust Dent J. 2013;58(4):483-490.24320906Kuriyama I, Musumi K, Yonezawa Y, et al. Inhibitory effects of glycolipids fraction from spinach on mammalian DNA polymerase activity and human cancer cell proliferation. J Nutr Biochem. 2005;16(10):594-601.16081275Kwan TK, Chadban SJ, McKenzie PR, Saunders JR. Acute oxalate nephropathy secondary to orlistat-induced enteric hyperoxaluria. Nephrology (Carlton). 2013;18(3):241-242.23432752Liu AH, Bondonno CP, Croft KD, et al. Effects of a nitrate-rich meal on arterial stiffness and blood pressure in healthy volunteers. Nitric Oxide. 2013;35:123-130.24120618Lomnitski L, Bergman M, Nyska A, Ben-Shaul V, Grossman S. Composition, efficacy, and safety of spinach extracts. Nutr Cancer. 2003;46(2):222-231.14690799Longnecker MP, Newcomb PA, Mittendorf R, Greenberg ER, Willett WC. Intake of carrots, spinach, and supplements containing vitamin A in relation to risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1997;6(11):887-892.9367061Maeda N, Hada T, Murakami-Nakai C, et al. Effects of DNA polymerase inhibitory and antitumor activities of lipase-hydrolyzed glycolipid fractions from spinach. J Nutr Biochem. 2005;16(2):121-128.15681172Maeda N, Hada T, Yoshida H, Mizushina Y. Inhibitory effect on replicative DNA polymerases, human cancer cell proliferation, and in vivo anti-tumor activity by glycolipids from spinach. Curr Med Chem. 2007;14(9):955-967.17439396Maeda N, Matsubara K, Yoshida H, Mizushina Y. Anti-cancer effect of spinach glycoglycerolipids as angiogenesis inhibitors based on the selective inhibition of DNA polymerase activity. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2011;11(1):32-38.21034405Maillard H, Machet L, Meurisse Y, et al. Cross-allergy to latex and spinach. Acta Derm Venereol. 2000;80(1):51.10721836Maruyama C, Kikuchi N, Masuya Y, Hirota S, Araki R, Maruyama T. Effects of green-leafy vegetable intake on postprandial glycemic and lipidemic responses and α-tocopherol concentration in normal weight and obese men. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2013;59(4):264-271.24064726McKillop DJ, Pentieva K, Daly D, et al. The effect of different cooking methods on folate retention in various foods that are amongst the major contributors to folate intake in the UK diet. Br J Nutr. 2002;88(6):681-688.12493090Morgan J, Bell M, Sadler MA. CT imaging of acute E. Coli-related colitis. Emerg Radiol. 2007;14(3):187-189.17333084Nyska A, Lomnitski L, Spalding J, et al. Topical and oral administration of the natural water-soluble antioxidant from spinach reduces the multiplicity of papillomas in the Tg.AC mouse model. Toxicol Lett. 2001;122(1):33-44.11397555Ozçakar L, Oǧuz AK. Spinach attack: a funny turn in gouty arthritis. Rheumatol Int. 2003;23(6):327.12750943Pool-Zobel BL, Bub A, Müller H, Wollowski I, Rechkemmer G. Consumption of vegetables reduces genetic damage in humans: first results of a human intervention trial with carotenoid-rich foods. Carcinogenesis. 1997;18(9):1847-1850.9328185Rebello CJ, Chu J, Beyl R, Edwall D, Erlanson-Albertsson C, Greenway FL. Acute effects of a spinach extract rich in thylakoids on satiety: a randomized controlled crossover trial. J Am Coll Nutr. 2015;34(6):470-477.26029978Richer S. Antioxidants and the eye. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2000;40(4):1-16.11064854Rodríguez-Fragoso L, Martínez-Arismendi JL, Orozco-Bustos D, Reyes-Esparza J, Torres E, Burchiel SW. Potential risks resulting from fruit/vegetable-drug interactions: effects on drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters. J Food Sci. 2011;76(4):R112-R124.22417366Rühl R, Bub A, Watzl B. Modulation of plasma all-trans retinoic acid concentrations by the consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables. Nutrition. 2008;24(11-12):1224-1226.18653315Sanchez I, Rodriguez F, Garcia-Abujeta JL, Fernandez L, Quiñones D, Martin-Gil D. Oral allergy syndrome induced by spinach. Allergy. 1997;52(12):1245-1246.9450148Sanders D. Spinach horticulture information leaflets. NC State University website. Published January 1, 2001. Accessed January 10, 2012.Schirrmacher G, Skurk T, Hauner H, Grassmann J. Effect of Spinacia oleraceae L. and Perilla frutescens L. on antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in an intervention study in healthy individuals. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2010;65(1):71-76.20052549Schuller A, Morisset M, Maadi F, et al. Occupational asthma due to allergy to spinach powder in a pasta factory. Allergy. 2005;60(3):408-409.15679732Schurgers LJ, Shearer MJ, Hamulyák K, Stöcklin E, Vermeer C. Effect of vitamin K intake on the stability of oral anticoagulant treatment: dose-response relationships in healthy subjects. Blood. 2004;104(9):2682-2689.15231565Slattery ML, Benson J, Curtin K, Ma KN, Schaeffer D, Potter JD. Carotenoids and colon cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(2):575-582.10648274Stenblom EL, Egecioglu E, Landin-Olsson M, Erlanson-Albertsson C. Consumption of thylakoid-rich spinach extract reduces hunger, increases satiety and reduces cravings for palatable food in overweight women. Appetite. 2015;91:209-219.25895695Sussman HE. Spinach makes a safer anthrax vaccine. Drug Discov Today. 2003;8(10):428-430.12801787Tamme T, Reinik M, Roasto M, Juhkam K, Tenno T, Kiis A. Nitrates and nitrites in vegetables and vegetable-based products and their intakes by the Estonian population. Food Addit Contam. 2006;23(4):355-361.16546882Tang G, Qin J, Dolnikowski GG, Russell RM, Grusak MA. Spinach or carrots can supply significant amounts of vitamin A as assessed by feeding with intrinsically deuterated vegetables. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82(4):821-828.16210712Torres-Sánchez L, López-Carrillo L, López-Cervantes M, Rueda-Neria C, Wolff MS. Food sources of phytoestrogens and breast cancer risk in Mexican women. Nutr Cancer. 2000;37(2):134-139.11142084
Spinacia oleracea L. USDA, NRCS. 2007. The PLANTS Database (, June 2007). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA. Accessed September 1, 2017.Youdim KA, Joseph JA. A possible emerging role of phytochemicals in improving age-related neurological dysfunctions: a multiplicity of effects. Free Radic Biol Med. 2001;30(6):583-594.


This information relates to an herbal, vitamin, mineral or other dietary supplement. This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this product. This information does not endorse this product as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about this product. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this product. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. You should talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this product.

This product may adversely interact with certain health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, foods, or other dietary supplements. This product may be unsafe when used before surgery or other medical procedures. It is important to fully inform your doctor about the herbal, vitamins, mineral or any other supplements you are taking before any kind of surgery or medical procedure. With the exception of certain products that are generally recognized as safe in normal quantities, including use of folic acid and prenatal vitamins during pregnancy, this product has not been sufficiently studied to determine whether it is safe to use during pregnancy or nursing or by persons younger than 2 years of age.

Further information

The content of Holevn is solely for the purpose of providing information about Thuốc Spinach  and is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Please contact your nearest doctor or clinic, hospital for advice. We do not accept liability if the patient arbitrarily uses the drug without following a doctor’s prescription.

Reference from:


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here