Thuốc Saffron

Thuốc Saffron
Thuốc Saffron

Holevn Health share articles about :Thuốc Saffron  , side effects – dosage , Thuốc Saffron what disease treatment.Other noted issues. Please refer to the details below.

Scientific Name(s): Crocus sativus L.
Common Name(s): Saffron, Stigma Croci, Za’faran

Medically reviewed by Last updated on Jan 20, 2020.

Clinical Overview


Saffron has widespread traditional uses. It has demonstrated efficacy as an alternative treatment for mild to moderate depression. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity has been suggested. Saffron may also have a potential role in the treatment of cancer, in the reduction of cardiovascular risk factors, and in age-related macular degeneration.


Clinical studies have evaluated doses ranging from 20 to 400 mg/day of pure saffron. Dosages of up to 1.5 g/day of saffron are thought to be safe; toxic effects have been reported for 5 g doses. Depression: 20 to 30 mg/day of saffron extract (stigma or petal) for mild to moderate depression. Hypertension: 400 mg/day of saffron tablets for 7 days.


Contraindicated in bleeding disorders.


Avoid use. Amounts higher than those used in food (eg, 5 g or more) have uterine stimulant and abortifacient effects. Information regarding safety and efficacy in lactation is lacking.


None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

Reported adverse effects include nausea, vomiting, and headache. Allergic reactions are uncommon; however, occupational allergies, including rhinoconjunctivitis, bronchial asthma, and cutaneous pruritus, have been reported. Case reports of anaphylaxis also exist.


Information is limited. Doses of 5 g are associated with toxic effects; doses of 10 to 20 g may be fatal.

Scientific Family

  • Iridaceae


True saffron is native to Asia Minor (Anatolia) and southern Europe, with the majority of the world’s saffron production based in Iran. Its blue-violet, lily-shaped flowers contain the orange stigmas (part of the pistil) and red style branches used to produce saffron spice. The plant is a bulbous perennial that grows 15 to 20 cm in height. Mature stigmas are collected by hand during a short autumn blooming season.1, 2

True saffron should not be confused with Carthamus tinctorius L. (family Asteraceae), also called American saffron (safflower, Indian safflower); the spice of American saffron is produced from its tubular florets and is characterized by a lighter red than true saffron. The two are often used for the same purposes, and the less expensive American saffron is sometimes used as a substitute for or to adulterate true saffron.


Saffron use has been traced to ancient Egyptian and Roman times, when it was used medicinally, only later becoming valued as a spice and dye. The word “saffron” is thought to originate from the Arabic “za’faran,” meaning yellow. Other sources suggest the name “Crocus” has origins in Greek mythology, according to which drops of blood from “Krokos,” friend of Hermes, fall on the flower of a plant and create the characteristic stigmata of saffron flowers.2, 3, 4, 5

Saffron has traditionally been used for its sedative, emmenagogue, stimulant (appetite), aphrodisiac, diaphoretic, and antidepressant properties, and for a wide variety of conditions, including cramps, asthma, menstrual disorders, liver disease, and pain.1, 3, 6 From the 17th to 19th centuries, saffron was included in various opioid preparations, including laudanum and “black-drop,” for pain relief.6 In the Indian Ayurvedic health system, saffron is considered an adaptogen.3 However, The Complete German Commission E Monographs negatively evaluated saffron for use in cramps and asthma.4 Various patents exist for saffron in combination with other agents.


The stigmas of C. sativus contain the primary pigment crocin, as well as anthocyanin, alpha- and beta-carotene, and zeaxanthin pigments, and the vitamins riboflavin and thiamine. The major carotenoid derivatives found in saffron are crocetin, picrocrocin, and safranal.2, 5, 7 The characteristic taste of the spice is attributed to the glycoside picrocrocin, while safranal is considered the main odiferous constituent, achieved through hydrolysis of picrocrocin.8

Crocin is a mixture of glycosides: crocetin, a dicarboxylic terpene lipid, and alpha-crocin, a digentiobiose ester of crocetin. Cis- and trans-crocetin dimethyl esters have also been identified.7 Similar compounds have been isolated from other members of the Iridaceae family. Gardenidin, a compound obtained from gardenias, is identical to crocetin.

The essential oil derived from saffron is a complex mixture of more than 30 components, mainly terpenes and their derivatives. A review of the volatile compounds of saffron has been published.8

Uses and Pharmacology


Animal and in vitro data

By mechanisms not fully understood, saffron appears to be selectively cytotoxic, inhibiting proliferation and disease progression while healthy cells remain viable. Antioxidant effects have been demonstrated.2, 5, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 The toxicity of cytostatic drugs, such as cisplatin, has been reduced with coadministration of saffron extracts, without affecting the antitumor activity of the cytostatic drugs.6, 9, 19 In one study, lifespan in rats with induced carcinomas was increased with the administration of saffron extracts5; in other studies of animal models and with cultured human malignant cell lines, saffron demonstrated antitumor and cancer preventive activities.10, 11

Clinical data

Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of saffron in cancer.

Cardiovascular effects

Animal data

Reviews of studies investigating the cardiovascular effects of saffron in animals have been published. Reductions in blood pressure, decreased cholesterol and triglyceride levels, inhibition of platelet aggregation and improved overall hemodynamic status, and reduced infarct size have been reported. Stimulatory effects on beta-2 adrenoceptors, antimuscarinic and anticholinergic effects, calcium channel antagonism, modulation of nitric oxide, and increases in cyclic adenosine monophosphate have been observed in rodents or tissue preparations.2, 5, 20, 21 In a study comparing saffron with amiodarone in rats, saffron doses up to 200 mg/kg demonstrated a beneficial antiarrhythmic effect, but were not as effective as amiodarone.22 Beneficial effects of saffron extracts on insulin resistance and lipid levels seem to be associated with increased adiponectin.23, 24

Clinical data

Saffron has demonstrated an antioxidant effect in human platelets via inhibition of lipid peroxidation.25, 26, 27 Improved antioxidant status was demonstrated in an older study of patients with coronary artery disease administered saffron extract 50 mg twice daily.4, 9 In patients with metabolic syndrome, supplemental saffron 100 mg daily for 12 weeks produced improvement in some indices related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (ie, heat shock proteins).28

In a study among healthy volunteers, saffron 400 mg daily for 7 days resulted in decreases in standing systolic, but not diastolic, blood pressure and in mean arterial pressure.29 In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study (N=60), administration of saffron 200 mg or 400 mg daily for 1 week did not affect any of the measured coagulation parameters.30


Animal data

In reviews of studies conducted in animal models of various CNS diseases, use of saffron extracts resulted in modulation of altered central excitatory and inhibitory processes, thus ameliorating CNS conditions such as depression.31 Aqueous and ethanolic saffron extracts reduced immobility time and increased swimming time in mouse models.32

Clinical data

A number of clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of saffron 30 mg daily over 6 to 8 weeks in treating mild to moderate depression.5, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 In several trials, saffron was more effective than placebo and at least equivalent to therapeutic doses of imipramine and fluoxetine according to Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) scores. There were no differences in adverse events between saffron and placebo groups in any of the studies; however, several involved small sample sizes (40 patients) and were conducted by the same group of researchers within a non-Western population.5, 40, 41 According to a meta-analysis of 5 published clinical trials examining the effects of saffron supplementation on symptoms of depression in patients with major depressive disorder, mean effect size was 1.62 for saffron over placebo (P<0.001).42 A more recent study of 60 patients compared 30 mg daily of a C. sativus extract containing crocin (1.65 to 1.75 mg) with citalopram 40 mg daily for 6 weeks; researchers noted comparable reductions in HAM-D scores throughout the study.43 A pilot study of 30 mg/day of the same C. sativus extract examined effects compared with fluoxetine 40 mg/day in women with postpartum depression; complete response (greater than 50% improvement in HAM-D scores) occurred in 13 patients in the extract group and 16 fluoxetine patients, with remission occurring in 6 and 7 patients, respectively.44

The significant cost of stigma-derived saffron capsules has prompted evaluation of the other plant parts; 2 trials evaluated petal-derived saffron with satisfactory results.34, 37 The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) clinical guidelines for the management of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults (2016) recommend saffron as third-line monotherapy or adjunctive therapy for mild to moderate MDD (Level 2).45

Other CNS disorders

Animal data

Studies in rodents have evaluated the effects of aqueous saffron extracts on anxiety, as well as on models of Parkinson disease and dementia.5, 46, 47 A study in mice concluded that the stigma and petal of saffron demonstrated antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects.48 In a rat study, crocin 20 and 40 mg/kg demonstrated protection against tardive dyskinesia induced by haloperidol.49

Clinical data

Two small, short-term clinical trials evaluating saffron in Alzheimer disease have been published (N=40, 16 weeks’ duration; and N=44, 22 weeks’ duration). These studies, conducted by the same group of researchers, reported efficacy with saffron greater than that with placebo and equivalent to that with donepezil.5, 50, 51 One study showed efficacy of saffron in the management of cognitive decline in patients with amnesic and multiple-domain mild cognitive impairment, with improvements in Mini-Mental State Examination scores, while the control group deteriorated (P=0.015).52

Limited clinical studies suggest efficacy in premenstrual syndrome53, 54 and in sexual dysfunction, particularly that related to antidepressant medication.55, 56, 57, 58 However, methodological issues exist in some of the studies,42 and others report no effect for saffron.42, 59 Furthermore, no effects on sperm density, morphology, and motility were reported in limited clinical studies.60, 61

The effects of saffron on satiety were evaluated in an 8-week, placebo-controlled clinical trial in healthy, mildly overweight women (N=60). A reduction in mean snacking frequency was reported; however, no differences in body weight were observed.62, 63

Inflammatory effects

Animal data

Hematological indices (reductions in eosinophil, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts) and proinflammatory factors in rodents treated with saffron extract suggest anti-inflammatory effects. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of saffron and its chemical constituents, as studied in animal experiments, have been reviewed.21, 64

Clinical data

The preventative effects of 10-day saffron supplementation on exercise-induced muscle soreness was compared with indomethacin in a small (N=39) clinical trial. Blinding of participants to treatment is unlikely because the saffron and placebo groups received once-daily dosing, while the indomethacin group adhered to an every-8-hour dosing regimen. Saffron 300 mg once daily decreased biochemical indices (plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase) and functional force compared with placebo.65

Ophthalmic effects

Animal data

A review of studies of age-related macular degeneration in animal models has been published;66 the studies suggest that due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects67, 68 and its ability to increase blood flow,67 saffron may protect against retinal stress.69

Clinical data

Limited clinical studies have evaluated the effect of oral saffron supplementation (30 mg and 20 mg daily for 1 and 3 months, respectively) on age-related macular degeneration.70, 71 Retinal flicker sensitivity was improved in these studies, suggesting a neuroprotective effect.66

A decrease in intraocular pressure was demonstrated at 3 weeks in a clinical study (N=17) evaluating the effect of oral saffron (30 mg/day for 1 month) in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.72

Other uses

Immunomodulatory effects have been described.73

Properties of saffron as an antidote to chemical toxicities and venom have been reported; the mechanism of action was attributed, in part, to antioxidant activity.17, 18 Reviews of antioxidant action and other properties of saffron and its constituents have also been published.16, 21, 74


Clinical studies have evaluated doses ranging from 20 to 400 mg/day of pure saffron.42 A dose-response effect has been suggested.42

Dosages of up to 1.5 g/day of saffron are thought to be safe; toxic effects have been reported for 5 g doses.3, 75


20 to 30 mg/day of saffron extract (stigma or petal) for mild to moderate depression.5, 75


400 mg/day of saffron tablets for 7 days.29

Pregnancy / Lactation

There is limited evidence of the emmenagogue or abortifacient effects attributed to saffron. In a study among healthy volunteers, saffron 400 mg daily for 7 days caused abnormal uterine bleeding in 2 women.29 A study in the 1960s demonstrated uterine stimulant and estrogenic effects in guinea pigs and mice.29 A high concentration of crocetin was teratogenic in frogs,76 and an aqueous extract of saffron delayed bone ossification in mouse fetuses.77

Avoid use in pregnancy. Amounts higher than those used in food (eg, 5 g or more) have uterine stimulant and abortifacient effects.78, 79

Information regarding safety and efficacy in lactation is lacking.


None well documented.78 Conflicting results regarding saffron’s effect on human platelets in healthy volunteers were reported, while an aqueous extract of saffron inhibited human platelet aggregation in vitro.27, 29 Therefore, interactions with anti-aggregating drugs are theoretically possible; saffron is contraindicated in bleeding disorders.2

Crocetin binds strongly to serum albumin; however, displacement of plasma-bound drugs has not been evaluated.25, 80

Adverse Reactions

Clinical trials evaluating saffron extract 30 mg daily in the treatment of depression reported no statistically significant adverse events compared with placebo or comparator drugs. Reported adverse effects included nausea, vomiting, and headache.2, 5

In a study of healthy volunteers, saffron 400 mg daily for 7 days caused statistically significant, but not clinically important, increases in serum creatine, sodium, and serum urea nitrogen.29 Similarly, crocin 20 mg in healthy volunteers reportedly produced minor hematological changes but no major adverse effects.81

Allergic reactions are uncommon; however, occupational allergies, including rhinoconjunctivitis, bronchial asthma, and cutaneous pruritus, have been reported.82, 83 Case reports of anaphylaxis also exist.3, 84 Cross-sensitivity has been described among saffron and Lolium, Salsola, and Olea spp.83


A few studies have evaluated the mutagenicity of saffron using the Ames Salmonella test; concentrations of up to 1,500 mcg/plate were found to be nontoxic and nonmutagenic.9, 85

The constituent crocin was not associated with any major toxicity in experimental models,11 except at higher dosages (crocin 100 mg/kg for 2 weeks), in which case hepatotoxicity was observed.81

In clinical trials evaluating dosages of saffron 400 mg, changes in some hematological and biochemical indices were observed. However, no major adverse events occurred.81

Severe adverse effects (including purpura, thrombocytopenia, and severe bleeding) have been reported after ingestion of saffron 5 g.2, 4 A lethal dose is considered to be approximately 20 g; saffron doses of greater than 10 g have been used to induce abortion. Death has been reported with use of saffron as an abortifacient.29 However, saffron is generally not associated with toxicity when ingested in amounts typically used in food.2, 3


1. Crocus sativus L. USDA, NRCS. 2009. The PLANTS Database (, June 2009). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA. Accessed March 8, 2012.2. WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants. Vol 1. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1999. Schmidt M, Betti G, Hensel A. Saffron in phytotherapy: pharmacology and clinical uses. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2007;157(13-14):315-319.177049794. Blumenthal M, Busse WR, eds. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Austin, TX: American Botanical Council; Boston, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications; 1998.5. Christodoulou E, Kadoglou NP, Kostomitsopoulos N, Valsami G. Saffron: a natural product with potential pharmaceutical applications. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2015;67(12):1634-1649.262721236. Hamilton GR, Baskett TF. In the arms of Morpheus: the development of morphine for postoperative pain relief. Can J Anesth. 2000;47(4):367-374.107641857. Duke JA. Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents of GRAS Herbs and Other Economic Plants. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1992.8. Carmona M, Zalacain A, Salinas MR, Alonso GL. A new approach to saffron aroma. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2007;47(2):145-159.173646999. Abdullaev FI, Espinosa-Aguirre JJ. Biomedical properties of saffron and its potential use in cancer therapy and chemoprevention trials. Cancer Detect Prev. 2004;28(6):426-432.1558226610. Samarghandian S, Borji A. Anticarcinogenic effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its ingredients. Pharmacognosy Res. 2014;6(2):99-107.2476111211. Bhandari PR. Crocus sativus L. (saffron) for cancer chemoprevention: A mini review. J Tradit Complement Med. 2015;5(2):81-87.2615101612. Dhar A, Mehta S, Dhar G, et al. Crocetin inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and tumor progression in a xenograft mouse model [published correction appears in Mol Cancer Ther. 2009;8(3):711]. Mol Cancer Ther. 2009;8(2):315-323.1920882613. Tavakkol-Afshari J, Brook A, Mousavi SH. Study of cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of saffron extract in human cancer cell lines. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46(11):3443-3447.1879071414. Zhang Z, Wang CZ, Wen XD, Shoyama Y, Yuan CS. Role of saffron and its constituents on cancer chemoprevention. Pharm Biol. 2013;51(7):920-924.2357052015. Gutheil WG, Reed G, Ray A, Anant S, Dhar A. Crocetin: an agent derived from saffron for prevention and therapy for cancer. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2012;13(1):173-179.2146643016. Rahaiee S, Moini S, Hashemi M, Shojaosadati SA. Evaluation of antioxidant activities of bioactive compounds and various extracts obtained from saffron (Crocus sativus L.): a review. J Food Sci Technol. 2015;52(4):1881-1888.2582956917. Razavi BM, Hosseinzadeh H. Saffron as an antidote or a protective agent against natural or chemical toxicities. Daru. 2015;23:31.2592872918. Santhosh MS, Thushara RM, Hemshekhar M, et al. Alleviation of viper venom induced platelet apoptosis by crocin (Crocus sativus): implications for thrombocytopenia in viper bites. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2013;36(4):424-432.2341297319. Nair SC, Kurumboor SK, Hasegawa JH. Saffron chemoprevention in biology and medicine: a review. Cancer Biother. 1995;10(4):257-264.859089020. Mokhtari-Zaer A, Khazdair MR, Boskabady MH. Smooth muscle relaxant activity of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituents: possible mechanisms. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2015;5(5):365-375.2646845621. Boskabady MH, Farkhondeh T. Antiinflammatory, Antioxidant, and Immunomodulatory Effects of Crocus sativus L. and its main constituents. Phytother Res. 2016;30(7):1072-1094.2709828722. Joukar S, Dehesh MM. The safety assessment of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on sympathovagal balance and heart rate variability; a comparison with amiodarone. Auton Autocoid Pharmacol. 2015;35(4):46-50.2732917223. Hemmati M, Asghari S, Zohoori E, Karamian M. Hypoglycemic effects of three Iranian edible plants; jujube, barberry and saffron: correlation with serum adiponectin level. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2015;28(6):2095-2099.2663950324. Hoshyar R, Hosseinian M, Hagandar MZ, et al. Anti-dyslipidemic properties of saffron: reduction in the associated risks of atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2016;18(12):e36226.25. Kanakis CD, Tarantilis PA, Tajmir-Riahi HA, Polissiou MG. Crocetin, dimethylcrocetin, and safranal bind human serum albumin: stability and antioxidative properties. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55(3):970-977.1726350126. Chatterjee S, Poduval TB, Tilak JC, Devasagayam TP. A modified, economic, sensitive method for measuring total antioxidant capacities of human plasma and natural compounds using Indian saffron (Crocus sativus). Clin Chim Acta. 2005;352(1-2):155-163.1565311027. Jessie SW, Krishnakantha TP. Inhibition of human platelet aggregation and membrane lipid peroxidation by food spice, saffron. Mol Cell Biochem. 2005;278(1-2):59-63.1618008928. Shemshian M, Mousavi SH, Norouzy A, et al. Saffron in metabolic syndrome: its effects on antibody titers to heat-shock proteins 27, 60, 65 and 70. J Complement Integr Med. 2014;11(1):43-49.2450116229. Modaghegh MH, Shahabian M, Esmaeili HA, Rajbai O, Hosseinzadeh H. Safety evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus) tablets in healthy volunteers. Phytomedicine. 2008;15(12):1032-1037.1869309930. Ayatollahi H, Javan AO, Khajedaluee M, Shahroodian M, Hosseinzadeh H. Effect of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) on coagulation and anticoagulation systems in healthy volunteers. Phytother Res. 2014;28(4):539-543.2373348831. Singh D. Neuropharmacological aspects of Crocus sativus L.: A review of preclinical studies and ongoing clinical research. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2015;14(7):880-902.2571497432. Khazdair MR, Boskabady MH, Hosseini M, Rezaee R, M Tsatsakis A. The effects of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituents on nervous system: A review. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2015;5(5):376-391.2646845733. Talaei A, Hassanpour Moghadam M, Sajadi Tabassi SA, Mohajeri SA. Crocin, the main active saffron constituent, as an adjunctive treatment in major depressive disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot clinical trial. J Affect Disord. 2015;174:51-56.2548417734. Akhondzadeh Basti A, Moshiri E, Noorbala AA, Jamshidi AH, Abbasi SH, Akhondzadeh S. Comparison of petal of Crocus sativus L. and fluoxetine in the treatment of depressed outpatients: a pilot double-blind randomized trial. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007;31(2):439-442.1717446035. Akhondzadeh S, Fallah-Pour H, Afkham K, Jamshidi AH, Khalighi-Cigaroudi F. Comparison of Crocus sativus L. and imipramine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a pilot double-blind randomized trial [ISRCTN45683816]. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2004;4:12.1534166236. Akhondzadeh S, Tahmacebi-Pour N, Noorbala AA, et al. Crocus sativus L. in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial. Phytother Res. 2005;19(2):148-151.1585249237. Moshiri E, Basti AA, Noorbala AA, Jamshidi AH, Hesameddin Abbasi S, Akhondzadeh S. Crocus sativus L. (petal) in the treatment of mild-to-moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial. Phytomedicine. 2006;13(9-10):607-611.1697932738. Noorbala AA, Akhondzadeh S, Tahmacebi-Pour N, Jamshidi AH. Hydro-alcoholic extract of Crocus sativus L. versus fluoxetine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized pilot trial. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;97(2):281-284.1570776639. Shahmansouri N, Farokhnia M, Abbasi SH, et al. A randomized, double-blind, clinical trial comparing the efficacy and safety of Crocus sativus L. with fluoxetine for improving mild to moderate depression in post percutaneous coronary intervention patients. J Affect Disord. 2014;155:216-222.2428989240. Sarris J. Herbal medicines in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: a systematic review. Phytother Res. 2007;21(8):703-716.1756256641. Thachil AF, Mohan R, Bhugra D. The evidence base of complementary and alternative therapies in depression. J Affect Disord. 2007;97(1-3):23-35.1692605342. Hausenblas HA, Heekin K, Mutchie HL, Anton S. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials examining the effectiveness of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on psychological and behavioral outcomes. J Integr Med. 2015;13(4):231-240.2616536743. Ghajar A, Neishabouri SM, Velayati N, et al. Crocus sativus L. versus citalopram in the treatment of major depressive disorder with anxious distress: a double-blind, controlled clinical trial [published online ahead of print October 4, 2016]. Pharmacopsychiatry.2770168310.1055/s-0042-11615944. Kashani L, Eslatmanesh S, Saedi N, et al. Comparision of saffron versus fluoxetine in treatment of mild to moderate postpartum depression: a double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2017;50(2):64-68.2759529810.1055/s-0042-11530645. Ravindran AV, Balneaves LG, Faulkner G, et al; CANMAT Depression Work Group. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) 2016 Clinical Guidelines for the Management of Adults with Major Depressive Disorder: Section 5. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments. Can J Psychiatry. 2016;61(9):576-587.2748615346. Pitsikas N. Constituents of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) as potential candidates for the treatment of anxiety disorders and schizophrenia. Molecules. 2016;21(3):303.2695010247. Pitsikas N. The Effect of Crocus sativus L. and its constituents on memory: basic studies and clinical applications. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:926284.2571359448. Hosseinzadeh H, Younesi HM. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Crocus sativus L. stigma and petal extracts in mice. BMC Pharmacol. 2002;2:7.1191413549. Kamyar M, Razavi BM, Hasani FV, Mehri S, Foroutanfar A, Hosseinzadeh H. Crocin prevents haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia: possible an antioxidant mechanism. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2016;19(10):1070-1079.2787270350. Akhondzadeh S, Sabet MS, Harirchian MH, et al. Saffron in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: a 16-week, randomized and placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2010;35(5):581-588.2083168151. Akhondzadeh S, Shafiee Sabet M, Harirchian MH, et al. A 22-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind controlled trial of Crocus sativus in the treatment of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010;207(4):637-643.1983886252. Tsolaki, M, Karathanasi E, Lazarou I, et al. Efficacy and safety of Crocus sativus L. in patients with mild cognitive impairment: one year single-blind randomized, with parallel groups, clinical trial. J Alzheimers Dis. 2016;54(1):129-33.2747287853. Agha-Hosseini M, Kashani L, Aleyaseen A, et al. Crocus sativus L. (saffron) in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: a double-blind, randomised and placebo-controlled trial. BJOG. 2008;115(4):515-519.1827188954. Fukui H, Toyoshima K, Komaki R. Psychological and neuroendocrinological effects of odor of saffron (Crocus sativus). Phytomedicine. 2011;18(8-9):726-730.2124207155. Kashani L, Raisi F, Saroukhani S, et al. Saffron for treatment of fluoxetine-induced sexual dysfunction in women: randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2013;28(1):54-60.2328054556. Modabbernia A, Sohrabi H, Nasehi AA, et al. Effect of saffron on fluoxetine-induced sexual impairment in men: randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012;223(4):381-388.2255275857. Mohammadzadeh-Moghadam H, Nazari SM, Shamsa A, et al. Effects of a topical saffron (Crocus sativus L) gel on erectile dysfunction in diabetics: a randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2015;20(4):283-286.2594867458. Shamsa A, Hosseinzadeh H, Molaei M, Shakeri MT, Rajabi O. Evaluation of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) on male erectile dysfunction: a pilot study. Phytomedicine. 2009;16(8):690-693.1942777559. Safarinejad MR, Shafiei N, Safarinejad S. An open label, randomized, fixed-dose, crossover study comparing efficacy and safety of sildenafil citrate and saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) for treating erectile dysfunction in men naive to treatment. Int J Impot Res. 2010;22(4):240-250.2052062160. Safarinejad MR, Shafiei N, Safarinejad S. A prospective double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study of the effect of saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) on semen parameters and seminal plasma antioxidant capacity in infertile men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. Phytother Res. 2011;25(4):508-516.2082489461. Heidary M, Vahhabi S, Reza Nejadi J, et al. Effect of saffron on semen parameters of infertile men [published correction appears in Urol J. 2009;6(1):71]. Urol J. 2008;5(4):255-259.1910190062. Gout B, Bourges C, Paineau-Dubreuil S. Satiereal, a Crocus sativus L extract, reduces snacking and increases satiety in a randomized placebo-controlled study of mildly overweight, healthy women. Nutr Res. 2010;30(5):305-313.2057952263. Mashmoul M, Azlan A, Khaza’ai H, Yusof BN, Noor SM. Saffron: a natural potent antioxidant as a promising anti-obesity drug. Antioxidants (Basel). 2013;2(4):293-308.2678446664. Poma A, Fontecchio G, Carlucci G, Chichiriccò G. Anti-inflammatory properties of drugs from saffron crocus. Antiinflamm Antiallergy Agents Med Chem. 2012;11(1):37-51.2293474765. Meamarbashi A, Rajabi A. Preventive effects of 10-day supplementation with saffron and indomethacin on the delayed-onset muscle soreness. Clin J Sport Med. 2015;25(2):105-112.2491517566. Bisti S, Maccarone R, Falsini B. Saffron and retina: neuroprotection and pharmacokinetics. Vis Neurosci. 2014;31(4-5):355-361.2481992767. Xuan B, Zhou YH, Li N, Min ZD, Chiou GC. Effects of crocin analogs on ocular blood flow and retinal function. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 1999;15(2):143-152.1022949268. Laabich A, Vissvesvaran GP, Lieu KL, et al. Protective effect of crocin against blue light- and white light-mediated photoreceptor cell death in bovine and primate retinal primary cell culture. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47(7):3156-3163.1679906369. Maccarone R, Di Marco S, Bisti S. Saffron supplement maintains morphology and function after exposure to damaging light in mammalian retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49(3):1254-1261.1832675670. Marangoni D, Falsini B, Piccardi M, et al. Functional effect of saffron supplementation and risk genotypes in early age-related macular degeneration: a preliminary report. J Transl Med. 2013;11:228.2406711571. Falsini B, Piccardi M, Minnella A, et al. Influence of saffron supplementation on retinal flicker sensitivity in early age-related macular degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51(12):6118-6124.2068874472. Jabbarpoor Bonyadi MH, Yazdani S, Saadat S. The ocular hypotensive effect of saffron extract in primary open angle glaucoma: a pilot study. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014;14:399.2531972973. Kianbakht S, Ghazavi A. Immunomodulatory effects of saffron: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res. 2011;25(12):1801-1805.2148041274. Khorasany AR, Hosseinzadeh H. Therapeutic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in digestive disorders: a review. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2016;19(5):455-469.2740325175. Lopresti AL, Drummond PD. Saffron (Crocus sativus) for depression: a systematic review of clinical studies and examination of underlying antidepressant mechanisms of action. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2014;29(6):517-527.2538467276. Martin G, Goh E, Neff AW. Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of crocetin on Xenopus. Food Chem Toxicol. 2002;40(7):959-964.1206521877. Golalipour MJ, Gharravi AM, Ghafari S, Afshar M, Khori V. Effects of crocus sativus on the fetal development of NMRI mice. Saudi Med J. 2008;29(2):309-310.1824625178. Brinker FJ. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions. 2nd ed. Sandy, OR: Eclectic Medical Publications; 1998.79. Ernst E. Herbal medicinal products during pregnancy: are they safe? BJOG. 2002;109(3):227-235.1195017680. Miller TL, Willett SL, Moss ME, Miller J, Belinka BA Jr. Binding of crocetin to plasma albumin. J Pharm Sci. 1982;71(2):173-177.706223981. Alavizadeh SH, Hosseinzadeh H. Bioactivity assessment and toxicity of crocin: a comprehensive review. Food Chem Toxicol. 2014;64:65-80.2427509082. Martínez FV, Muñoz Pamplona MP, Urzaiz AG, García EC. Occupational airborne contact dermatitis from saffron bulbs. Contact Dermatitis. 2007;57(4):284-285.1786823183. Feo F, Martinez J, Martinez A, et al. Occupational allergy in saffron workers. Allergy. 1997;52(6):633-641.922605784. Wüthrich B, Schmid-Grendelmeyer P, Lundberg M. Anaphylaxis to saffron. Allergy. 1997;52(4):476-477.918893685. Abdullaev FI. Cancer chemopreventive and tumoricidal properties of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2002;227(1):20-25.11788779


This information relates to an herbal, vitamin, mineral or other dietary supplement. This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this product. This information does not endorse this product as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about this product. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this product. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. You should talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this product.

This product may adversely interact with certain health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, foods, or other dietary supplements. This product may be unsafe when used before surgery or other medical procedures. It is important to fully inform your doctor about the herbal, vitamins, mineral or any other supplements you are taking before any kind of surgery or medical procedure. With the exception of certain products that are generally recognized as safe in normal quantities, including use of folic acid and prenatal vitamins during pregnancy, this product has not been sufficiently studied to determine whether it is safe to use during pregnancy or nursing or by persons younger than 2 years of age.

Further information

The content of Holevn is solely for the purpose of providing information about Thuốc Saffron  and is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Please contact your nearest doctor or clinic, hospital for advice. We do not accept liability if the patient arbitrarily uses the drug without following a doctor’s prescription.

Reference from:

Đánh giá 5* bài viết này


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here