Thuốc Barbiturate

0
54
Thuốc Barbiturate
Thuốc Barbiturate

Holevn Health chia sẻ các bài viết về: Thuốc Barbiturat, tác dụng phụ – liều lượng, Thuốc Barbiturat điều trị bệnh gì. Các vấn đề lưu ý khác. Vui lòng tham khảo các chi tiết dưới đây.

Tên thương hiệu thường được sử dụng

Tại Hoa Kỳ

  • Natri butisol
  • Mysoline
  • Bí mật

Các dạng bào chế có sẵn:

  • Viên con nhộng
  • Máy tính bảng
  • Thuốc tiên

Sử dụng cho barbiturat

Barbiturates thuộc nhóm thuốc gọi là thuốc ức chế hệ thần kinh trung ương (CNS) (thuốc gây buồn ngủ). Họ hành động trên não và CNS để tạo ra các hiệu ứng có thể hữu ích hoặc có hại. Điều này phụ thuộc vào tình trạng và phản ứng của từng bệnh nhân và lượng thuốc dùng.

Một số barbiturat có thể được sử dụng trước khi phẫu thuật để giảm bớt lo lắng hoặc căng thẳng. Ngoài ra, một số barbiturat được sử dụng làm thuốc chống co giật để giúp kiểm soát cơn động kinh trong một số rối loạn hoặc bệnh, chẳng hạn như động kinh. Barbiturates cũng có thể được sử dụng cho các điều kiện khác theo xác định của bác sĩ.

Các barbiturat đã được sử dụng để điều trị chứng mất ngủ (khó ngủ); nhưng nếu chúng được sử dụng thường xuyên (ví dụ, mỗi ngày) cho chứng mất ngủ, chúng thường không hiệu quả trong thời gian dài hơn 2 tuần. Các barbiturat cũng đã được sử dụng để làm giảm căng thẳng hoặc bồn chồn vào ban ngày. Tuy nhiên, barbiturat thường được thay thế bằng các loại thuốc an toàn hơn để điều trị chứng mất ngủ và hồi hộp hoặc căng thẳng vào ban ngày.

Nếu sử dụng quá nhiều barbiturat, nó có thể trở thành thói quen.

Barbiturat không nên được sử dụng cho lo lắng hoặc căng thẳng gây ra bởi sự căng thẳng của cuộc sống hàng ngày.

Những loại thuốc này chỉ có sẵn với toa thuốc của bác sĩ.

Trước khi sử dụng barbiturat

Dị ứng

Hãy cho bác sĩ của bạn nếu bạn đã từng có bất kỳ phản ứng bất thường hoặc dị ứng với các loại thuốc trong nhóm này hoặc bất kỳ loại thuốc nào khác. Cũng nói với chuyên gia chăm sóc sức khỏe của bạn nếu bạn có bất kỳ loại dị ứng nào khác, chẳng hạn như thực phẩm thuốc nhuộm, chất bảo quản hoặc động vật. Đối với các sản phẩm không kê đơn, đọc nhãn hoặc thành phần gói cẩn thận.

Nhi khoa

Sự phấn khích bất thường có thể xảy ra ở trẻ em, những người thường nhạy cảm hơn người lớn đối với tác dụng của barbiturat.

Lão

Nhầm lẫn, suy nhược tinh thần và hưng phấn bất thường có thể xảy ra ở người cao tuổi, những người thường nhạy cảm hơn so với người trẻ tuổi hơn về tác dụng của barbiturat.

Thai kỳ

Barbiturat đã được chứng minh là làm tăng nguy cơ dị tật bẩm sinh ở người. Tuy nhiên, barbiturat có thể cần thiết trong các bệnh nghiêm trọng hoặc các tình huống khác đe dọa đến cuộc sống của người mẹ. Hãy chắc chắn rằng bạn đã thảo luận về điều này và các thông tin sau đây với bác sĩ của bạn:

  • Uống barbiturat thường xuyên trong thai kỳ có thể gây ra vấn đề chảy máu ở trẻ sơ sinh. Ngoài ra, dùng barbiturat thường xuyên trong 3 tháng cuối của thai kỳ có thể khiến em bé bị lệ thuộc vào thuốc. Điều này có thể dẫn đến tác dụng phụ rút ở em bé sau khi sinh.
  • Một nghiên cứu ở người đã gợi ý rằng barbiturat được thực hiện trong thai kỳ có thể làm tăng khả năng bị u não ở trẻ.
  • Barbiturat được thực hiện để gây mê trong quá trình chuyển dạ và sinh nở có thể làm giảm lực và tần số co bóp của tử cung; điều này có thể kéo dài thời gian chuyển dạ và trì hoãn giao hàng.
  • Sử dụng barbiturat khi chuyển dạ có thể gây khó thở ở trẻ sơ sinh.

Cho con bú

Barbiturat truyền vào sữa mẹ và có thể gây buồn ngủ, nhịp tim chậm, khó thở hoặc khó thở ở trẻ sơ sinh của các bà mẹ cho con bú dùng barbiturat.

Tương tác với thuốc

Mặc dù một số loại thuốc không nên được sử dụng cùng nhau, trong các trường hợp khác, hai loại thuốc khác nhau có thể được sử dụng cùng nhau ngay cả khi có thể xảy ra tương tác. Trong những trường hợp này, bác sĩ của bạn có thể muốn thay đổi liều, hoặc các biện pháp phòng ngừa khác có thể là cần thiết. Khi bạn đang sử dụng bất kỳ loại thuốc nào trong số này, điều đặc biệt quan trọng là chuyên gia chăm sóc sức khỏe của bạn phải biết nếu bạn đang sử dụng bất kỳ loại thuốc nào được liệt kê dưới đây. Các tương tác sau đây đã được chọn trên cơ sở ý nghĩa tiềm năng của chúng và không nhất thiết phải bao gồm tất cả.

Sử dụng thuốc trong nhóm này với bất kỳ loại thuốc nào sau đây không được khuyến cáo. Bác sĩ của bạn có thể quyết định không điều trị cho bạn bằng một loại thuốc trong lớp này hoặc thay đổi một số loại thuốc khác mà bạn dùng.

  • Đồng hồ
  • Atazanavir
  • Boceprevir
  • Cobicistat
  • Darunavir
  • Dasabuvir
  • Delamanid
  • Delavirdine
  • Doravirine
  • Elvitegravir
  • Isavuconazonium Sulfate
  • Lopinavir
  • Lumefantrine
  • Luraidone
  • Maraviroc
  • Nisoldipin
  • Ombitasvir
  • Paritaprevir
  • Praziquantel
  • Ranolazine
  • Rilpivirine
  • Ritonavir
  • Telaprevir
  • Tenofovir Alafenamide
  • Tipranavir
  • Voriconazole

Sử dụng thuốc trong nhóm này với bất kỳ loại thuốc nào sau đây thường không được khuyến nghị, nhưng có thể được yêu cầu trong một số trường hợp. Nếu cả hai loại thuốc được kê đơn cùng nhau, bác sĩ có thể thay đổi liều hoặc tần suất bạn sử dụng một hoặc cả hai loại thuốc.

  • Acenvitymarol
  • Alfentanil
  • Alprazolam
  • Amobarbital
  • Anisindione
  • Apixaban
  • Tạp dề
  • Aprobarbital
  • Axitinib
  • Bedaquiline
  • Benzhydrocodone
  • Brigatinib
  • Bromazepam
  • Bromopride
  • Buprenorphin
  • Bupropion
  • Butabarbital
  • Butalbital
  • Butanol
  • Canxi
  • Cần sa
  • Carbinoxamine
  • Carisoprodol
  • Xe đẩy
  • Ceritinib
  • Cetirizin
  • Hydrat clo
  • Chlordiazepoxide
  • Clorzoxazone
  • Clarithromycin
  • Clobazam
  • Clonazepam
  • Clorazepate
  • Clozapine
  • Cobimetinib
  • Codein
  • Dabigatran Etexilate
  • Daclatasvir
  • Dantrolene
  • Darunavir
  • Deferasirox
  • Deflazacort
  • Delavirdine
  • Desogestrel
  • Diazepam
  • Dicumarol
  • Điện di
  • Dihydrocodeine
  • Dolutegravir
  • Doxorubicin
  • Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Liposome
  • Doxylamine
  • Dronedarone
  • Drospirenone
  • Elbasvir
  • Encorafenib
  • Entrectinib
  • Erdafitinib
  • Erlotinib
  • Esketamine
  • Acetate Eslicarbazepine
  • Esomeprazole
  • Estazolam
  • Estradiol
  • Ethchlorvynol
  • Ethin Estradiol
  • Ethynodiol
  • Etonogestrel
  • Etravirine
  • Exemestane
  • For rectal dosage form (suppositories):
    • For trouble in sleeping:
      • Adults—120 to 200 mg inserted into the rectum at bedtime.
      • Children 12 to 14 years of age—60 or 120 mg inserted into the rectum at bedtime.
      • Children 5 to 12 years of age—60 mg inserted into the rectum at bedtime.
      • Children 1 to 4 years of age—30 or 60 mg inserted into the rectum at bedtime.
      • Children 2 months to 1 year of age—30 mg inserted into the rectum at bedtime.
      • Children up to 2 months of age—Dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • For daytime sedation:
      • Adults—30 mg inserted into the rectum two to four times a day.
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight or size and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 2 mg per kg (0.9 mg per pound) of body weight, inserted into the rectum three times a day.
    • For sedation before surgery:
      • Children 12 to 14 years of age—60 or 120 mg inserted into the rectum.
      • Children 5 to 12 years of age—60 mg inserted into the rectum.
      • Children 1 to 4 years of age—30 or 60 mg inserted into the rectum.
      • Children 2 months to 1 year of age—30 mg inserted into the rectum.
      • Children up to 2 months of age—Dose must be determined by your doctor.
  • For phenobarbital

  • For oral dosage forms (elixir, capsules, or tablets):
    • For trouble in sleeping:
      • Adults—100 to 320 milligrams (mg) at bedtime.
      • Children—Dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • For daytime sedation:
      • Adults—30 to 120 mg a day, taken in smaller doses two or three times during the day.
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight or size and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 2 mg per kilogram (kg) (0.9 mg per pound) of body weight three times a day.
    • For sedation before surgery:
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 1 to 3 mg per kg (0.45 to 1.4 mg per pound) of body weight.
    • For control of seizures:
      • Adults—60 to 250 mg a day.
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 1 to 6 mg per kg (0.45 to 2.7 mg per pound) of body weight a day.
  • For injection dosage form:
    • For trouble in sleeping:
      • Adults—100 to 325 mg, injected into a muscle or vein, or under the skin.
      • Children—Dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • For daytime sedation:
      • Adults—30 to 120 mg a day, injected into a muscle or a vein, or under the skin, in smaller doses two or three times during the day.
      • Children—Dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • For sedation before surgery:
      • Adults—130 to 200 mg, injected into a muscle sixty to ninety minutes before surgery.
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 1 to 3 mg per kg (0.45 to 1.4 mg per pound) of body weight, injected into a muscle or vein sixty to ninety minutes before surgery.
    • For control of seizures:
      • Adults—100 to 320 mg injected into a vein. The dose may be repeated if needed, but is usually not more than 600 mg a day. However, higher doses may be needed for certain types of continuing seizures.
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. At first, the usual dose is 10 to 20 mg per kg (4.5 to 9 mg per pound) of body weight, injected into a vein. Later, 1 to 6 mg per kg (0.45 to 2.7 mg per pound) of body weight a day, injected into a vein. Higher doses may be needed for certain types of continuing seizures.
  • For secobarbital

  • For oral dosage form (capsules):
    • For trouble in sleeping:
      • Adults—100 milligrams (mg) at bedtime.
      • Children—Dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • For daytime sedation:
      • Adults—30 to 50 mg three or four times a day.
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight or size and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 2 mg per kilogram (kg) (0.9 mg per pound) of body weight three times a day.
    • For sedation before surgery:
      • Adults—200 to 300 mg one or two hours before surgery.
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 2 to 6 mg per kg (0.9 to 2.7 mg per pound) of body weight one or two hours before surgery. However, the dose is usually not more than 100 mg.
  • For injection dosage form:
    • For trouble in sleeping:
      • Adults—100 to 200 mg injected into a muscle, or 50 to 250 mg injected into a vein.
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight or size and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 3 to 5 mg per kg (1.4 to 2.3 mg per pound) of body weight, injected into a muscle. However, the dose is usually not more than 100 mg.
    • For sedation before dental procedures:
      • Adults—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 1.1 to 2.2 mg per kg (0.5 to 1 mg per pound) of body weight, injected into a muscle ten to fifteen minutes before the procedure.
      • Children—Dose must be determined by your dentist.
    • For sedation before a nerve block:
      • Adults—100 to 150 mg, injected into a vein.
    • For sedation before surgery:
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 4 to 5 mg per kg (1.8 to 2.3 mg per pound) of body weight, injected into a muscle.
    • For seizures from tetanus:
      • Adults—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 5.5 mg per kg (2.5 mg per pound) of body weight, injected into a muscle or vein. Dose may be repeated every three to four hours if needed.
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 3 to 5 mg per kg (1.4 to 2.3 mg per pound) of body weight, injected into a muscle or vein.
    • For secobarbital and amobarbital combination

    • For oral dosage form (capsules):
      • For trouble in sleeping:
        • Adults—1 capsule at bedtime.
        • Children—Dose must be determined by your doctor.
      • For sedation before surgery:
        • Adults—1 capsule taken one hour before surgery.
        • Children—Dose must be determined by your doctor.

    Missed dose

    If you miss a dose of barbiturate, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.

    Storage

    Keep out of the reach of children.

    Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.

    Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.

    Store the suppository form of barbiturate in the refrigerator.

    Precautions while using barbiturate

    If you will be using barbiturate regularly for a long time:

    • Your doctor should check your progress at regular visits.
    • Do not stop using it without first checking with your doctor. Your doctor may want you to reduce gradually the amount you are using before stopping completely.

    Barbiturate will add to the effects of alcohol and other CNS depressants (medicines that slow down the nervous system, possibly causing drowsiness). Some examples of CNS depressants are antihistamines or medicine for hay fever, other allergies, or colds; sedatives, tranquilizers, or sleeping medicine; prescription pain medicine or narcotics; medicine for seizures; muscle relaxants; or anesthetics, including some dental anesthetics. Check with your doctor before taking any of the above while you are using barbiturate .

    Before you have any medical tests, tell the medical doctor in charge that you are taking barbiturate. The results of the metyrapone test may be affected by barbiturate.

    If you have been using barbiturate for a long time and you think that you may have become mentally or physically dependent on it, check with your doctor. Some signs of mental or physical dependence on barbiturates are:

    • a strong desire or need to continue taking the medicine.
    • a need to increase the dose to receive the effects of the medicine.
    • withdrawal side effects (for example, anxiety or restlessness, convulsions [seizures], feeling faint, nausea or vomiting, trembling of hands, trouble in sleeping) occurring after the medicine is stopped.

    If you think you or someone else may have taken an overdose of barbiturate, get emergency help at once. Taking an overdose of a barbiturate or taking alcohol or other CNS depressants with the barbiturate may lead to unconsciousness and possibly death. Some signs of an overdose are severe drowsiness, severe confusion, severe weakness, shortness of breath or slow or troubled breathing, slurred speech, staggering, and slow heartbeat.

    Barbiturate may cause some people to become dizzy, lightheaded, drowsy, or less alert than they are normally. Even if taken at bedtime, it may cause some people to feel drowsy or less alert on arising. Make sure you know how you react to barbiturate before you drive, use machines, or do anything else that could be dangerous if you are dizzy or are not alert .

    Oral contraceptives (birth control pills) containing estrogen may not work properly if you take them while you are taking barbiturates. Unplanned pregnancies may occur. You should use a different or additional means of birth control while you are taking barbiturates. If you have any questions about this, check with your health care professional.

    Barbiturate side effects

    Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

    Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur:

    Rare

    • Bleeding sores on lips
    • chest pain
    • fever
    • muscle or joint pain
    • red, thickened, or scaly skin
    • skin rash or hives
    • sores, ulcers, or white spots in mouth (painful)
    • sore throat and/or fever
    • swelling of eyelids, face, or lips
    • wheezing or tightness in chest

    Check with your doctor as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur:

    Less common

    • Confusion
    • mental depression
    • unusual excitement

    Rare

    • Hallucinations (seeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not there)
    • unusual bleeding or bruising
    • unusual tiredness or weakness

    With long-term or chronic use

    • Bone pain, tenderness, or aching
    • loss of appetite
    • muscle weakness
    • weight loss (unusual)
    • yellow eyes or skin

    Symptoms of overdose

    • Confusion (severe)
    • decrease in or loss of reflexes
    • drowsiness (severe)
    • fever
    • irritability (continuing)
    • low body temperature
    • poor judgment
    • shortness of breath or slow or troubled breathing
    • slow heartbeat
    • slurred speech
    • staggering
    • trouble in sleeping
    • unusual movements of the eyes
    • weakness (severe)

    Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:

    More common

    • Clumsiness or unsteadiness
    • dizziness or lightheadedness
    • drowsiness
    • “hangover” effect

    Less common

    • Anxiety or nervousness
    • constipation
    • feeling faint
    • headache
    • irritability
    • nausea or vomiting
    • nightmares or trouble in sleeping

    Confusion, mental depression, and unusual excitement may be more likely to occur in very ill patients.

    After you stop using barbiturate, your body may need time to adjust. If you took barbiturate in high doses or for a long time, this may take up to about 15 days. During this period of time check with your doctor if any of the following side effects occur (usually occur within 8 to 16 hours after medicine is stopped):

    • Anxiety or restlessness
    • convulsions (seizures)
    • dizziness or lightheadedness
    • feeling faint
    • hallucinations (seeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not there)
    • muscle twitching
    • nausea or vomiting
    • trembling of hands
    • trouble in sleeping, increased dreaming, or nightmares
    • vision problems
    • weakness

    Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.

    Seek emergency medical attention or call 115

    Further information

    The content of Holevn is solely for the purpose of providing information about Thuốc Barbiturate  and is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Please contact your nearest doctor or clinic, hospital for advice. We do not accept liability if the patient arbitrarily uses the drug without following a doctor’s prescription.

    Reference from: https://www.drugs.com/cons/barbiturate-oral-parenteral-rectal.html

  • Nitrazepam
  • Norethindrone
  • Norgestimate
  • Norgestrel
  • Olaparib
  • Orlistat
  • Oxazepam
  • Oxcarbazepine
  • Oxycodone
  • Oxymorphone
  • Paclitaxel
  • Panobinostat
  • Pentazocine
  • Pentobarbital
  • Perampanel
  • Periciazine
  • Phenindione
  • Phenobarbital
  • Phenprocoumon
  • Piperaquine
  • Ponatinib
  • Prazepam
  • Pregabalin
  • Pretomanid
  • Primidone
  • Propofol
  • Quazepam
  • Remifentanil
  • Rivaroxaban
  • Saquinavir
  • Scopolamine
  • Secobarbital
  • Simeprevir
  • Sirolimus
  • Sodium Oxybate
  • Sonidegib
  • Succinylcholine
  • Sufentanil
  • Sunitinib
  • Tacrolimus
  • Tapentadol
  • Tasimelteon
  • Temazepam
  • Teniposide
  • Thiopental
  • Tolvaptan
  • Tramadol
  • Trazodone
  • Triazolam
  • Ulipristal
  • Valproic Acid
  • Vandetanib
  • Velpatasvir
  • Venetoclax
  • Vilazodone
  • Vortioxetine
  • Voxelotor
  • Voxilaprevir
  • Zanubrutinib
  • Zolpidem

Interactions with food/tobacco/alcohol

Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. Discuss with your healthcare professional the use of your medicine with food, alcohol, or tobacco.

Other medical problems

The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of medicines in this class. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:

  • Alcohol abuse (or history of) or
  • Drug abuse or dependence (or history of)—Dependence on barbiturates may develop.
  • Anemia (severe) or
  • Asthma (history of), emphysema, or other chronic lung disease or
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus or
  • Hyperactivity (in children) or
  • Mental depression or
  • Overactive thyroid or
  • Porphyria (or history of)—Barbiturates may make the condition worse.
  • Kidney disease or
  • Liver disease—Higher blood levels of barbiturates may result, increasing the chance of side effects.
  • Pain—Barbiturates may cause unexpected excitement or mask important symptoms of more serious problems.
  • Underactive adrenal gland—Barbiturates may interfere with the effects of other medicines needed for this condition.

Proper use of barbiturate

For patients taking the extended-release capsule or tablet form of barbiturate:

  • These capsules or tablets are to be swallowed whole. Do not break, crush, or chew before swallowing.

For patients using the rectal suppository form of barbiturate:

  • To insert the suppository: First remove the foil wrapper and moisten the suppository with cold water. Lie down on your side and use your finger to push the suppository well up into the rectum.
  • Wash your hands with soap and water.

Use barbiturate only as directed by your doctor. Do not use more of it, do not use it more often, and do not use it for a longer time than your doctor ordered. If too much is used, it may become habit-forming (causing mental or physical dependence).

If you think barbiturate is not working properly after you have taken it for a few weeks, do not increase the dose. To do so may increase the chance of your becoming dependent on the medicine. Instead, check with your doctor.

If you are taking barbiturate for epilepsy, it must be taken every day in regularly spaced doses as ordered by your doctor in order for it to control your seizures. This is necessary to keep a constant amount of medicine in the blood. To help keep the amount constant, do not miss any doses.

Dosing

The dose medicines in this class will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor’s orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of these medicines. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.

    For amobarbital

  • For oral dosage form (tablets or capsules):
    • For trouble in sleeping:
      • Adults—65 to 200 milligrams (mg) at bedtime.
      • Children—Dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • For daytime sedation:
      • Adults—50 to 300 mg, taken in smaller doses during the day.
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight or size and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 2 mg per kilogram (kg) (0.9 mg per pound) of body weight taken three times a day.
    • For sedation before surgery:
      • Adults—200 mg taken one to two hours before surgery.
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 2 to 6 mg per kg (0.9 to 2.7 mg per pound) of body weight, taken before surgery. However, the dose is usually not more than 100 mg.
    • For sedation during labor:
      • Adults—200 to 400 mg every one to three hours if needed. However, the total dose is usually not more than 1000 mg.
  • For injection dosage form:
    • For trouble in sleeping:
      • Adults—65 to 200 mg, injected into a muscle or vein.
      • Children up to 6 years of age—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 2 to 3 mg per kg (0.9 to 1.4 mg per pound) of body weight, injected into a muscle.
      • Children 6 years of age and over—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 2 to 3 mg per kg (0.9 to 1.4 mg per pound) of body weight, injected into a muscle, or 65 to 500 mg injected into a vein.
    • For daytime sedation:
      • Adults—30 to 50 mg two or three times a day, injected into a muscle or vein
    • For sedation before surgery:
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 3 to 5 mg per kg (1.4 to 2.3 mg per pound) of body weight or 65 to 500 mg per dose, injected into a vein.
    • For control of seizures:
      • Adults and children 6 years of age and over—65 to 500 mg per dose, injected into a vein.
      • Children up to 6 years of age—Dose is based on body weight or size and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 3 to 5 mg per kg (1.4 to 2.3 mg per pound) of body weight, injected into a muscle or vein.
    For aprobarbital

  • For oral dosage form (elixir):
    • For trouble in sleeping:
      • Adults—40 to 160 milligrams (mg) at bedtime.
      • Children—Dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • For daytime sedation:
      • Adults—40 mg three times a day.
      • Children—Dose must be determined by your doctor.
    For butabarbital

  • For oral dosage forms (elixir or tablets):
    • For trouble in sleeping:
      • Adults—50 to 100 milligrams (mg) at bedtime.
      • Children—Dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • For daytime sedation:
      • Adults—15 to 30 mg three or four times a day.
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight or size and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 2 mg per kilogram (kg) (0.9 mg per pound) of body weight three times a day.
    • For sedation before surgery:
      • Adults—50 to 100 mg sixty to ninety minutes before surgery.
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 2 to 6 mg per kg (0.9 to 2.7 mg per pound) of body weight. However, the dose is usually not more than 100 mg.
    For mephobarbital

  • For oral dosage form (tablets):
    • For daytime sedation:
      • Adults—32 to 100 milligrams (mg) three or four times a day.
      • Children—16 to 32 mg three or four times a day.
    • For control of seizures:
      • Adults—200 to 600 mg a day, taken in smaller doses during the day.
      • Children 5 years of age and over—32 to 64 mg three or four times a day.
      • Children up to 5 years of age—16 to 32 mg three or four times a day.
    For metharbital

  • For oral dosage form (tablets):
    • For control of seizures:
      • Adults—At first, 100 milligrams (mg) one to three times a day. Your doctor may increase your dose if needed. However, the dose is usually not more than 800 mg a day.
      • Children—50 mg one to three times a day.
    For pentobarbital

  • For oral dosage forms (elixir or capsules):
    • For trouble in sleeping:
      • Adults—100 milligrams (mg) at bedtime.
      • Children—Dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • For daytime sedation:
      • Adults—20 mg three or four times a day.
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 2 to 6 mg per kilogram (kg) (0.9 to 2.7 mg per pound) of body weight per day.
    • For sedation before surgery:
      • Adults—100 mg before surgery.
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 2 to 6 mg per kilogram (0.9 to 2.7 mg per pound) of body weight, taken before surgery. However, the dose is usually not more than 100 mg.
  • For injection dosage form:
    • For trouble in sleeping:
      • Adults—150 to 200 mg, injected into a muscle. Or, 100 mg injected into a vein, with additional small doses given if needed. However, the dose is usually not more than 500 mg.
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 2 to 6 mg per kg (0.9 to 2.7 mg per pound) of body weight, injected into a muscle. Or, 50 mg injected into a vein, with additional small doses given if needed.
    • For sedation before surgery:
      • Adults—150 to 200 mg, injected into a muscle.
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 2 to 6 mg per kg (0.9 to 2.7 mg per pound) of body weight, injected into a muscle. However, the dose is usually not more than 100 mg.
    • For control of seizures:
      • Adults—At first, 100 mg injected into a vein. Additional small doses may be given if needed. However, the dose is usually not more than 500 mg.
      • Children—At first, 50 mg injected into a muscle or vein. Additional small doses may be given if needed.
  • For rectal dosage form (suppositories):
    • For trouble in sleeping:
      • Adults—120 to 200 mg inserted into the rectum at bedtime.
      • Children 12 to 14 years of age—60 or 120 mg inserted into the rectum at bedtime.
      • Children 5 to 12 years of age—60 mg inserted into the rectum at bedtime.
      • Children 1 to 4 years of age—30 or 60 mg inserted into the rectum at bedtime.
      • Children 2 months to 1 year of age—30 mg inserted into the rectum at bedtime.
      • Children up to 2 months of age—Dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • For daytime sedation:
      • Adults—30 mg inserted into the rectum two to four times a day.
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight or size and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 2 mg per kg (0.9 mg per pound) of body weight, inserted into the rectum three times a day.
    • For sedation before surgery:
      • Children 12 to 14 years of age—60 or 120 mg inserted into the rectum.
      • Children 5 to 12 years of age—60 mg inserted into the rectum.
      • Children 1 to 4 years of age—30 or 60 mg inserted into the rectum.
      • Children 2 months to 1 year of age—30 mg inserted into the rectum.
      • Children up to 2 months of age—Dose must be determined by your doctor.
    For phenobarbital

  • For oral dosage forms (elixir, capsules, or tablets):
    • For trouble in sleeping:
      • Adults—100 to 320 milligrams (mg) at bedtime.
      • Children—Dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • For daytime sedation:
      • Adults—30 to 120 mg a day, taken in smaller doses two or three times during the day.
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight or size and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 2 mg per kilogram (kg) (0.9 mg per pound) of body weight three times a day.
    • For sedation before surgery:
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 1 to 3 mg per kg (0.45 to 1.4 mg per pound) of body weight.
    • For control of seizures:
      • Adults—60 to 250 mg a day.
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 1 to 6 mg per kg (0.45 to 2.7 mg per pound) of body weight a day.
  • For injection dosage form:
    • For trouble in sleeping:
      • Adults—100 to 325 mg, injected into a muscle or vein, or under the skin.
      • Children—Dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • For daytime sedation:
      • Adults—30 to 120 mg a day, injected into a muscle or a vein, or under the skin, in smaller doses two or three times during the day.
      • Children—Dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • For sedation before surgery:
      • Adults—130 to 200 mg, injected into a muscle sixty to ninety minutes before surgery.
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 1 to 3 mg per kg (0.45 to 1.4 mg per pound) of body weight, injected into a muscle or vein sixty to ninety minutes before surgery.
    • For control of seizures:
      • Adults—100 to 320 mg injected into a vein. The dose may be repeated if needed, but is usually not more than 600 mg a day. However, higher doses may be needed for certain types of continuing seizures.
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. At first, the usual dose is 10 to 20 mg per kg (4.5 to 9 mg per pound) of body weight, injected into a vein. Later, 1 to 6 mg per kg (0.45 to 2.7 mg per pound) of body weight a day, injected into a vein. Higher doses may be needed for certain types of continuing seizures.
    For secobarbital

  • For oral dosage form (capsules):
    • For trouble in sleeping:
      • Adults—100 milligrams (mg) at bedtime.
      • Children—Dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • For daytime sedation:
      • Adults—30 to 50 mg three or four times a day.
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight or size and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 2 mg per kilogram (kg) (0.9 mg per pound) of body weight three times a day.
    • For sedation before surgery:
      • Adults—200 to 300 mg one or two hours before surgery.
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 2 to 6 mg per kg (0.9 to 2.7 mg per pound) of body weight one or two hours before surgery. However, the dose is usually not more than 100 mg.
  • For injection dosage form:
    • For trouble in sleeping:
      • Adults—100 to 200 mg injected into a muscle, or 50 to 250 mg injected into a vein.
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight or size and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 3 to 5 mg per kg (1.4 to 2.3 mg per pound) of body weight, injected into a muscle. However, the dose is usually not more than 100 mg.
    • For sedation before dental procedures:
      • Adults—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 1.1 to 2.2 mg per kg (0.5 to 1 mg per pound) of body weight, injected into a muscle ten to fifteen minutes before the procedure.
      • Children—Dose must be determined by your dentist.
    • For sedation before a nerve block:
      • Adults—100 to 150 mg, injected into a vein.
    • For sedation before surgery:
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 4 to 5 mg per kg (1.8 to 2.3 mg per pound) of body weight, injected into a muscle.
    • For seizures from tetanus:
      • Adults—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 5.5 mg per kg (2.5 mg per pound) of body weight, injected into a muscle or vein. Dose may be repeated every three to four hours if needed.
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 3 to 5 mg per kg (1.4 to 2.3 mg per pound) of body weight, injected into a muscle or vein.
    For secobarbital and amobarbital combination

  • For oral dosage form (capsules):
    • For trouble in sleeping:
      • Adults—1 capsule at bedtime.
      • Children—Dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • For sedation before surgery:
      • Adults—1 capsule taken one hour before surgery.
      • Children—Dose must be determined by your doctor.

Missed dose

If you miss a dose of barbiturate, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.

Storage

Keep out of the reach of children.

Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.

Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.

Store the suppository form of barbiturate in the refrigerator.

Precautions while using barbiturate

If you will be using barbiturate regularly for a long time:

  • Your doctor should check your progress at regular visits.
  • Do not stop using it without first checking with your doctor. Your doctor may want you to reduce gradually the amount you are using before stopping completely.

Barbiturate will add to the effects of alcohol and other CNS depressants (medicines that slow down the nervous system, possibly causing drowsiness). Some examples of CNS depressants are antihistamines or medicine for hay fever, other allergies, or colds; sedatives, tranquilizers, or sleeping medicine; prescription pain medicine or narcotics; medicine for seizures; muscle relaxants; or anesthetics, including some dental anesthetics. Check with your doctor before taking any of the above while you are using barbiturate .

Before you have any medical tests, tell the medical doctor in charge that you are taking barbiturate. The results of the metyrapone test may be affected by barbiturate.

If you have been using barbiturate for a long time and you think that you may have become mentally or physically dependent on it, check with your doctor. Some signs of mental or physical dependence on barbiturates are:

  • a strong desire or need to continue taking the medicine.
  • a need to increase the dose to receive the effects of the medicine.
  • withdrawal side effects (for example, anxiety or restlessness, convulsions [seizures], feeling faint, nausea or vomiting, trembling of hands, trouble in sleeping) occurring after the medicine is stopped.

If you think you or someone else may have taken an overdose of barbiturate, get emergency help at once. Taking an overdose of a barbiturate or taking alcohol or other CNS depressants with the barbiturate may lead to unconsciousness and possibly death. Some signs of an overdose are severe drowsiness, severe confusion, severe weakness, shortness of breath or slow or troubled breathing, slurred speech, staggering, and slow heartbeat.

Barbiturate may cause some people to become dizzy, lightheaded, drowsy, or less alert than they are normally. Even if taken at bedtime, it may cause some people to feel drowsy or less alert on arising. Make sure you know how you react to barbiturate before you drive, use machines, or do anything else that could be dangerous if you are dizzy or are not alert .

Oral contraceptives (birth control pills) containing estrogen may not work properly if you take them while you are taking barbiturates. Unplanned pregnancies may occur. You should use a different or additional means of birth control while you are taking barbiturates. If you have any questions about this, check with your health care professional.

Barbiturate side effects

Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur:

Rare

  • Bleeding sores on lips
  • chest pain
  • fever
  • muscle or joint pain
  • red, thickened, or scaly skin
  • skin rash or hives
  • sores, ulcers, or white spots in mouth (painful)
  • sore throat and/or fever
  • swelling of eyelids, face, or lips
  • wheezing or tightness in chest

Check with your doctor as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur:

Less common

  • Confusion
  • mental depression
  • unusual excitement

Rare

  • Hallucinations (seeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not there)
  • unusual bleeding or bruising
  • unusual tiredness or weakness

With long-term or chronic use

  • Bone pain, tenderness, or aching
  • loss of appetite
  • muscle weakness
  • weight loss (unusual)
  • yellow eyes or skin

Symptoms of overdose

  • Confusion (severe)
  • decrease in or loss of reflexes
  • drowsiness (severe)
  • fever
  • irritability (continuing)
  • low body temperature
  • poor judgment
  • shortness of breath or slow or troubled breathing
  • slow heartbeat
  • slurred speech
  • staggering
  • trouble in sleeping
  • unusual movements of the eyes
  • weakness (severe)

Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:

More common

  • Clumsiness or unsteadiness
  • dizziness or lightheadedness
  • drowsiness
  • “hangover” effect

Less common

  • Anxiety or nervousness
  • constipation
  • feeling faint
  • headache
  • irritability
  • nausea or vomiting
  • nightmares or trouble in sleeping

Confusion, mental depression, and unusual excitement may be more likely to occur in very ill patients.

After you stop using barbiturate, your body may need time to adjust. If you took barbiturate in high doses or for a long time, this may take up to about 15 days. During this period of time check with your doctor if any of the following side effects occur (usually occur within 8 to 16 hours after medicine is stopped):

  • Anxiety or restlessness
  • convulsions (seizures)
  • dizziness or lightheadedness
  • feeling faint
  • hallucinations (seeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not there)
  • muscle twitching
  • nausea or vomiting
  • trembling of hands
  • trouble in sleeping, increased dreaming, or nightmares
  • vision problems
  • weakness

Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.

Seek emergency medical attention or call 115

Further information

The content of Holevn is solely for the purpose of providing information about Thuốc Barbiturate  and is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Please contact your nearest doctor or clinic, hospital for advice. We do not accept liability if the patient arbitrarily uses the drug without following a doctor’s prescription.

Reference from: https://www.drugs.com/cons/barbiturate-oral-parenteral-rectal.html

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here