Azathioprine

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Azathioprine

Tên chung: azathioprine (ay za THYE oh preen)
Tên thương hiệu: Azasan, Imuran

Được xem xét về mặt y tế bởi Holevn.org vào ngày 6 tháng 2 năm 2019 – Viết bởi Cerner Multum

Azathioprine là gì?

Azathioprine làm suy yếu hệ thống miễn dịch của cơ thể bạn, để giúp nó không “từ chối” một cơ quan được cấy ghép như thận. Từ chối nội tạng xảy ra khi hệ thống miễn dịch coi cơ quan mới là kẻ xâm lược và tấn công nó.

Azathioprine được sử dụng để ngăn cơ thể bạn từ chối một quả thận được ghép. Azathioprine cũng được sử dụng để điều trị các triệu chứng viêm khớp dạng thấp.

Azathioprine cũng có thể được sử dụng cho các mục đích không được liệt kê trong hướng dẫn thuốc này.

Thông tin quan trọng

Azathioprine có thể gây ra một loại ung thư hạch hiếm gặp (ung thư) gan, lá lách và tủy xương có thể gây tử vong. Điều này đã xảy ra chủ yếu ở thanh thiếu niên và thanh niên mắc bệnh Crohn hoặc viêm loét đại tràng.

Trước khi dùng thuốc này

Bạn không nên dùng azathioprine nếu bạn bị dị ứng với azathioprine.

Bạn không nên sử dụng azathioprine để điều trị viêm khớp dạng thấp nếu bạn đang mang thai. Thuốc này có thể gây hại cho thai nhi. Sử dụng biện pháp tránh thai hiệu quả để tránh thai trong khi sử dụng thuốc này.

Do not receive a “live” vaccine while using azathioprine. The vaccine may not work as well and may not fully protect you from disease. Live vaccines include measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), polio, rotavirus, typhoid, yellow fever, varicella (chickenpox), and zoster (shingles).

Azathioprine side effects

Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Azathioprine may cause a serious brain infection that can lead to disability or death. Call your doctor right away if you have problems with speech, thought, vision, or muscle movement. These symptoms may start gradually and get worse quickly.

Stop using azathioprine and call your doctor right away if you have any of these symptoms of lymphoma:

  • fever, swollen glands, body aches, night sweats, not feeling well;

  • pale skin, rash, easy bruising or bleeding;

  • cold hands and feet, feeling light-headed or short of breath;

  • pain in your upper stomach that may spread to your shoulder; or

  • feeling full after eating only a small amount, weight loss.

Also call your doctor at once if you have:

Follow all directions on your prescription label and read all medication guides or instruction sheets. Your doctor may occasionally change your dose. Use the medicine exactly as directed.

When given for kidney transplant, azathioprine is usually given right before or on the day of transplant. For rheumatoid arthritis, azathioprine is taken on a daily basis.

It may take up to 8 weeks before your symptoms improve. Keep using azathioprine as directed and tell your doctor if your symptoms have not improved after 12 weeks of use.

Take with food if azathioprine upsets your stomach.

You may not be able to continue taking other arthritis medications together with azathioprine. Do not change your dose or dosing schedule without your doctor’s advice.

Azathioprine affects your immune system. You may get infections more easily, even serious or fatal infections. Your doctor will need to examine you on a regular basis.

Store at room temperature away from moisture, heat, and light. Keep the bottle tightly closed when not in use.

What happens if I miss a dose?

Take the medicine as soon as you can, but skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next dose. Do not take two doses at one time.

What happens if I overdose?

Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.

What should I avoid while taking azathioprine?

Avoid sunlight or tanning beds. Azathioprine can increase your risk of developing skin cancer. Wear protective clothing and use sunscreen (SPF 30 or higher) when you are outdoors.

Avoid being near people who are sick or have infections. Tell your doctor at once if you develop signs of infection.

Do not receive a “live” vaccine while using azathioprine. The vaccine may not work as well and may not fully protect you from disease. Live vaccines include measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), polio, rotavirus, typhoid, yellow fever, varicella (chickenpox), and zoster (shingles).

Azathioprine side effects

Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Azathioprine may cause a serious brain infection that can lead to disability or death. Call your doctor right away if you have problems with speech, thought, vision, or muscle movement. These symptoms may start gradually and get worse quickly.

Stop using azathioprine and call your doctor right away if you have any of these symptoms of lymphoma:

  • fever, swollen glands, body aches, night sweats, not feeling well;

  • pale skin, rash, easy bruising or bleeding;

  • cold hands and feet, feeling light-headed or short of breath;

  • pain in your upper stomach that may spread to your shoulder; or

  • feeling full after eating only a small amount, weight loss.

Also call your doctor at once if you have:

  • signs of infection (fever, chills, weakness, flu symptoms, sore throat, cough, pain or burning when you urinate);

  • severe nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea;

  • easy bruising, unusual bleeding;

  • rapid heartbeats, shortness of breath;

  • pale skin, cold hands and feet; or

  • dark urine, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes).

Common side effects may include:

  • nausea, diarrhea, stomach pain;

  • hair loss; or

  • skin rash.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Azathioprine side effects (in more detail)

What other drugs will affect azathioprine?

Tell your doctor about all your current medicines. Many drugs can affect azathioprine, especially:

  • allopurinol;

  • febuxostat; or

  • ribavirin.

This list is not complete and many other drugs may affect azathioprine. This includes prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Not all possible drug interactions are listed here.

Azathioprine drug interactions (in more detail)

Further information

Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

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